End to end Bitcoin Blockchain explanation with examples

Comprehensive Introduction of Polkadot-Overview (1)

Comprehensive Introduction of Polkadot-Overview (1)

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I have been planning to write a series of articles to comprehensively introduce Polkadot for a long time. Unfortunately, I didn't know enough at the time. After long-term research, I got a systematic understanding of Polkadot. Meanwhile, I found that the more I study, the more excited I am, and the more I can realize the greatness of Polkadot. If you are a DOT holder, you must also want to know what is so great about this huge blockchain giant that has been honed by former Ethereum CTO Gavin Wood for three years. If you don’t know much about blockchain technology, you basically can’t understand a project by reading the white paper only. As Polkadot’s preacher and the most steadfast believer in blockchain, it seems necessary to me to conduct a series of articles about Polkadot. As My fans, I believe you all know very well that my articles can basically be understood by anyone who even have no basic knowledge. So, please read it carefully. After all, you can't hold your token without knowing it. Even if DOT can rise to more than 10 thousand USD one day, you will most likely get off the train halfway.

1. Why Do We Need Polkadot?
When Satoshi Nakamoto invented Bitcoin, because the total amount of Bitcoin was constant, the process of using a computer to mine Bitcoin was just like mining gold in reality, which required a lot of power resources. Therefore, people regard Bitcoin as digital gold, which has the effect of scarcity and value preservation. People are happy to exchange part of their legal currency into Bitcoin, believing that Bitcoin can live with human civilization and that your assets will not be diluted by the over-issuance of legal currency.

This is the era of blockchain 1.0.

Bitcoin, as the first decentralized currency, can be transferred from point-to-point. However, people find that the flow of Bitcoin cannot be executed according to the contract. For example, Smith pledged 1 Bitcoin to Jones to lend $10,000.00 US dollars. Then when Smith returns Jones $10,000.00, Jones should return the pledged 1 Bitcoin to Smith. The question is, what if Jones pull back and refusing returning the Bitcoin?
Later, everyone knows that Vitalik Buterin invented Ethereum, through which people can freely mint tokens on the chain and control the flow of these tokens with codes through smart contracts. With smart contracts, the above example can be easily solved. Smith only needs to pledge 100 ETH to the contract to lend 10,000 USDT. Later, when Smith transfers 10,000 USDT back to the contract, the contract will return 100 ETH to Smith.

This is the era of blockchain 2.0.

Ethereum is known as the world computer, and people can freely write smart contracts to control the flow of value, which enables decentralized finance (DEFI) to flourish on Ethereum. However, the performance of Ethereum is limited. Countless smart contracts run on Ethereum and compete with each other to occupy resources. Ethereum often suffers from network congestion due to sudden explosion of individual projects, such as the CryptoKitties Incident.
Later, BM invented EOS, claiming to usher in the blockchain 3.0 era. EOS abandoned the thousands of nodes in Ethereum and only used 21 Supernodes, which indeed greatly improved the throughput of TPS. However, the current ecology of EOS is far inferior to Ethereum. The reason is that EOS has lost the core essence of the blockchain-decentralization.
For blockchain projects, without decentralization, it would be meaningless to have a high TPS. Because decentralization is the core to make blockchain differ from the traditional internet. We cannot imagine a future DEFI projects with tens of billions market value will run on EOS which has only 21 nodes. Why do we trust these 21 nodes other than banks?

Ethereum also has a more prominent problem. Ethereum has gradually formed a closed ecology. Indeed, I am very optimistic about DEFI and it is true that DEFI is the future of blockchain. But as the Ethereum develops better, will it be fair to other blockchain projects? Most people who invest in blockchain tokens, the first token they buy will likely to be Bitcoin. There are far more believers in Bitcoin than Ethereum. No matter how good the development of DEFI on Ethereum is, Bitcoin users cannot enjoy. Is it a good thing for the entire blockchain industry?
However, Gavin Wood, the former CTO of Ethereum, has long seen through all this. He left Ethereum and embarked on a brand-new journey.

Ethereum missed Polkadot, and Polkadot started a new era.

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2. What exactly is Polkadot?
According to the above, we expect that the real blockchain 3.0 should meet two conditions:
  1. Under the premise of sufficient decentralization, TPS is large enough, and projects under the ecology will not compete with each other for network resources, and the entire network can grow infinitely.
  2. It can be interoperable with other blockchains, which we call "cross-chain".

Polkadot solves these two problems perfectly, and there are many excellent features, which will be slowly introduced in subsequent articles. Today, we only briefly explain what Polkadot is.

Describe Polkadot in one sentence:
Polkadot is nothing, but because it is nothing, it can be anything.

How to understand it?
If we compare a blockchain to a skyscraper:
The Bitcoin Building has been completed. This building focuses on one function, which is bookkeeping.
The Ethereum Building has been completed. This building is mainly smart contracts and smart contract-based applications. It is very difficult to add other functions or make major changes.

Polkadot is a foundation that is responsible for the safety of all the blockchain buildings built on this foundation. Before a blockchain project is built, Polkadot is nothing. After the blockchain project is built on the foundation (Polkadot), the entire building will have certain functions. Therefore, no matter what the top blockchain technology appears in the future, it can become a member of the building complex based on the Polkadot foundation.
Of course, these blockchain buildings of the Polkadot Building complex can carry out business transactions.

At the same time, Polkadot will also specialize in building various bridges to connect the Bitcoin Tower and the Ethereum Tower, so that other successfully constructed blockchain buildings can have business contacts with the Polkadot complex.

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Unlike the Bitcoin Tower and the Ethereum Tower, the Polkadot complex has enough capacity. When the Polkadot foundation is about to be unbearable, it will continue to replicate the foundation and continue to build the second and third Polkadot complex. It can be expanded to countless buildings, and there are still bridges for business exchanges between these newly established Polkadot buildings.

So what you say Polkadot is, it is nothing, but if there are more blockchain projects join in, it will be everything.


——END


My name is Joie. I am a big fan of Polkadot and I founded the Polkadot New Era community. My Twitter account is @ joieCui, If you support me, you can nominate my node:
15DLJZ4ceN58vEgDiQjK8JsSJuLNBqhUnQ6QCY1QNSjrQntm

I made a website about Polkadot, which will be launched this month, please stay tuned.

Thanks for your support !
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Difference between smart-contracts and nodes

Difference between smart-contracts and nodes
Greetings. 🤗 In this post we will tell you about the difference between a node and a smart contract.

❓ What is a node?

A node is any computer that is connected to a blockchain network. Simply put, this is the point at which messages can be created, received, or transmitted. For a bitcoin network, for example, there are full nodes, supernodes, miner nodes, and an SPV client.

❓ What is a smart contract?

Smart contracts are computer data transfer protocols that use mathematical algorithms to automatically complete a transaction after meeting established conditions and complete process control. The protocol is used to enter all the terms of the contract concluded between the parties to the transaction in the blockchain. Obligations of participants are provided in the smart contract in the form of "if-then" (for example: "if Party A transfers money, then Party B transfers the rights to the apartment"). Once these conditions are met, the smart contract independently performs the transaction and ensures that the agreement is respected.

❗️ Thus, the smart contract is the action that takes place, and the node is the place where this action takes place.

💡 The Relictum Pro innovative approach

✔️ The distinctive mechanism is as follows: only the hash of one event (transaction) is recorded in the block, and it cannot be changed. Thus, all kinds of collisions are swept aside. In addition to recording the event hash into the block, when forming a new one, the entire hash of the previous block and + integer value is taken (we put the sequential block number in front of the block). There is a main chain of blocks - Master_Chain, which contains only the hash of a block of lower and side smart contracts.

✔️ In parallel with the main Master_Chain, various independent chains are formed - these are smart contracts that organize the three-dimensional distribution, for example:
- first smart contract - generation of tokens;
- second smart contract - sale of goods through the store;
- third - a crypto exchange;
- fourth - delivery of goods, etc.

✔️ Thus, the organization of chains of smart contracts and the main Master_Chain leads to a four-dimensional model of the organization of distribution of blocks.

Read more about Relictum Pro innovative solutions here: https://relictum.pro
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The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain
There is not going to be one blockchain to rule them all, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Interoperability is key to unlocking the true potential of blockchain, where it will have a profound effect across all industries, creating a secure, trusted and hyper-connected world.
The rise of The Networks of Networks, interconnecting all DLT Networks, existing off-chain networks and even the Internet itself. Where true, scalable interoperability can be achieved without requiring connected chains to fork their code and imposing limitations, without the overhead, bottleneck and single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle. Where it will be quick, easy and free to participate.
It’s time to stop the childish tribalism that’s plagued this space for so long and realise the bigger picture. Tribes fighting amongst themselves over a tiny insignificant island where there is a whole world out there to conquer if they work together. A rising tide lifts all boats and with the birth of The Network of Networks all connected projects can benefit from the efforts of each other, to usher in Mass adoption of Blockchain.
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In this article I will discuss the foundations that are being laid in preparation for the release of Overledger Network, The Network of Networks to make all of this possible and to unleash the true potential of blockchain with a secure, hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Table of Contents:
  1. Overledger SDK Update
  2. Standards
  3. Security
  4. Regulation
  5. Overledger Network
  6. The Five Ingredients of Interoperability
  7. Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger
  8. Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain
  9. Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Overledger SDK Update

Quant have just released their Overledger SDK update which has enabled standardisation of objects to abstract and simplify how to interact with different types of blockchains (UXTO and Account-based) in a common model. As well as the ability to directly deploy, invoke and query smart contracts directly through Overledger. I strongly recommend reading the teams Overledger SDK Update which explains it in more detail and includes example use cases of how Overledger is being used and the benefits it brings. Dr Luke Riley also did a fantastic job providing an in-depth demo of the Overledger SDK Update via Video as well.
https://youtu.be/PbpaZpe4mTQ

“This update sets the foundations to build the ecosystem for Overleger Network, allowing stakeholders other than Quant to write any type (DLT and non-DLT) Overledger connectors and sets up the ecosystem with multiple entry points for Overledger Gateways. These updates open up the integration capabilities of Overledger to 3rd parties and create the foundations for the Overledger Network”

Standards

“Trusted standards mean that industry doesn’t need to reinvent the wheel, that innovations will be compatible and work with existing technology, and that products and services will be trusted too. Governments use standards as trusted solutions to complement regulation, and they give peace of mind to consumers who know they are not putting themselves or their families at risk.” — Acting ISO Secretary-General Kevin McKinley
The foundations need to align with internationally recognised standards as they play a crucial role in ensuring interoperability with new and existing technology and validates a product meets the best practices / regulation required to ensure Enterprises remains in compliance. CEO of Quant, Gilbert Verdian, founded the ISO TC 307 standard covering blockchain as a whole, which 56 countries are working towards today.
Countries involved with ISO TC 307 — https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604.html?view=participation
Gilbert Verdian is the chairman for the ISO TC 307 working group for interoperability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems as well as being chairman for Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology for BSI (British Standards Institution) which represent the UK and includes companies such as Quant, IBM, Microsoft, HSBC, BAE Systems, Huawei as well as a number of UK Government bodies such as BEIS — Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Defence Science and Technology and the National Cyber Security Centre.
The standardisation updates to the Overledger SDK aligns with the work in ISO TC 307 and academic work from Dr Paolo Tasca and Dr Claudio Tessone to provide users with a clear distributed ledger data standard. This will enable everyone to easily create connectors in a standard way, facilitating interoperability with all of the connected blockchains / non-DLT networks that are already connected to Overledger through Overledger Gateways.

Security

Cybersecurity is in Quant’s DNA. The team have a rich heritage of working for Governments, banks and industry for over 20 years protecting organisations and people from security threats. Before Quant, Gilbert Verdian was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) where he was in charge of security for the entire payments infrastructure in the UK (£6 Trillion per year).
Gilbert has led a team determined to take security to another level, protecting a critical part of the UK’s infrastructure, protecting UK citizens and businesses from fraud and risk and, by extension, allowing them to live as they want to. Under Gilbert’s guidance, Vocalink security is not merely best-in-class, but setting a new standard. — https://connect.vocalink.com/2017/july/a-winning-streak/
In addition to Quant being selected as a Guarantor for Pay.UK, Gilbert has also been appointed to the Cybersecurity Advisory Board (Pay.UK is the UK’s leading retail payments authority and runs the UK’s retail payments operations, which includes Bacs, Faster Payments and Cheques.)
The pillars of security are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. As such, they have used their experience in running payment and financial infrastructure and critical national infrastructure for nations and embedded these principles into every aspect of Overledger.

Regulation

Regulation is playing an ever increasing role for blockchain. Standards and Security naturally complement and help define regulation. The verticals Quant are involved in with regards to regulation span the globe. Gilbert helped shape the conversation about consumer data protection rights during his time as CISO of NSW Health, and is continuing to serve as a cornerstone for policy within the adoption of blockchain in public infrastructure. Quant serves as a founding member of INATBA (The International Association of Trusted Blockchain Applications), which is the formal governing body of the European Blockchain Partnership, all of which is overseen in Brussels by the EU. More locally, Gilbert and team are in consistent contact with the House of Lords within the UK, and advises the FCA in matters regarding cryptoassets.
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As recently seen in the SDK update, Overledger can serve as a key component of automatic compliance of governance bodies’ financial regulation, shown here by an Overledger instance reporting to the BoE’s Prudential Regulation Authority. Project BARAC, stewarded by University College London, is a project examining the impact Automatic Regulation as administered by Blockchain can have on the Federal Government. Most notably, the FCA and R3, the developers of Corda, are involved here. Gilbert’s recent engagements with the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston also seem to revolve around this very topic, with the Boston Fed pilot-testing a Supervisor Node for automatic regulatory compliance. While at P2PFISY 2019, it was noted by Gilbert that Raphael Auer’s “Regulation Automata” aligns very well with the vision of Overledger, with Paolo Tasca, former CSO of Quant, more recently co-hosting a recent blockchain panel with him. Raphael’s ideas will most likely be taken into consideration by the BIS, as they recently announced a trial of a 6 central banks collaboration centered around exploring CBDC, and are in the early stages of installing Innovation Hubs in Hong Kong, Switzerland, and Singapore.
Gilbert Verdian with Guy Dietrich (Managing Director at Rockefeller Capital who is also on the Board at Quant) attending a meeting with the Financial Conduct Authority

Overledger Network

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The Overledger Network is a network of networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies. Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains. The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with.
As per the example use case in the recent update a Bank can run an Overledger Gateway to provide access to the various consortiums hosted on a variety of blockchains including Corda, Hyperledger Fabric and JP Morgan’s Quorum as well as access to the legacy / non-DLT platforms. Should they want to utilise a public blockchain as well in a hybrid scenario then they also have the option of using a Overledger Gateway hosted by a community member.
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The Overledger Gateways contain several layers which we will explore some of their features below:

Overledger Operating System

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Overledger allows connection to any blockchain / DAG as well as easily integrating with existing non-DLT environments. It does this without adding the overhead of yet another blockchain / consensus in the middle, ensuring that it’s scalable and doesn’t contain a single point of failure. Nor does it require the connected blockchains to fork their code to integrate and place restrictions on what can be implemented going forward. All of this is done in a secure, trustless manner where transactions are signed and encrypted client side so the contents can’t be viewed / modified as they pass through Overledger. It currently connects all of the leading permissioned and permissionless blockchains used by enterprises today. This article explains the differences between other interoperability solutions and the benefits of Quant’s approach

The Five Ingredients of Interoperability:

Recently there was an interoperability webinar with Fintech connect with speakers such as R3’s CTO Richard Gendal Brown, along with representatives from the Bank of England, Deutsche Boerse, Nasdaq, ArchaxEx and SwissRe. Richard Gendal Brown from R3 wrote about the Five key Ingredients of Interoperability:
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  1. INTEGRATE with existing business systems — Businesses aren’t going to replace their existing applications for new blockchain ones, they need to integrate with their existing systems.
  2. INITIATE Payments on existing rails or blockchain rails — Needs to be able to make a payment / settlement using a wide variety of existing payment rails (off chain) as well as blockchain rails, ensuring delivery vs payment can be achieved with certainty that they have happened.
  3. INTERCHAIN applications and smart contracts that can be deployed / executed across protocols — Enabling a solution built on Corda such as Marco Polo to easily connect to a solution on another platform such as Vakt on Ethereum or CargoSmart on Hyperledger Fabric etc
  4. INTRACHAIN applications that benefit from value add of same underlying protocol — What happens when networks such as Marco Polo and Contour both running on Corda want to interoperate and the additional value and benefit that can be achieved.
  5. INTERCHANGE applications to switch platforms — What happens if you want to interchange one platform for another. Can you achieve that holy grail of interoperability by being able to be completely agnostic to the underlying platform?
Overledger meets all of these key ingredients in performing interoperability. Overledger enables existing business systems to benefit from blockchain connectivity by adding as little as 3 lines of code to their existing applications. No need to completely rewrite / replace their existing systems and all done in the most common programming languages such as Java and JavaScript.
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At QuantX in December they announced Overledger Interchange which enables settlement on a variety of existing non-dlt payment rails such as Faster Payments, BACS, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT as well as on DLT payment rails such as with Central Bank Digital Currencies, Stablecoins and XRP. It also facilitates Cross Chain Atomic Swaps using Hash Time Locked Contracts ensuring Delivery vs Payment is achieved. Interchange is at the centre of the discussions Quant has had with traditional exchanges in capital markets and central banks and is a technology financial services have been missing and was built it address client needs.
Overledger enables interoperability within the same ecosystem such as Corda DAPP to another Corda DAPP etc as well as interoperability between any of the connected permissionless and permissioned blockchains.
Quants blockchain agnostic Operating System enables users to benefit from using the best features from different chains in combination and migrate between them, preventing Vendor or Tech Lock in without having to completely rewrite existing applications, achieving the holy grail of interoperability. It enables developers to quickly test a variety of connected blockchains in a sandbox environment to see which is best suited for their requirements, starting with just 3 lines of code.

Transactions Services Layer

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The Transaction Services layer handles more complex features of Overledger. Allowing for applications to request services such as cross-chain atomic swaps, treaty contracts (Multi Chain Smart Contracts as well as enabling smart contract functionality even on blockchains that don’t support smart contracts natively such as Bitcoin) and transaction brokering (using heuristic analysis to determine which method is the fastest / cheapest out of the various payment rails)

Financial Services Layer

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Financial services features can be called upon by participants and applications to use crosschain and cross-platform. Financial Services specific use cases can use the features in Overledger to operate across networks. This layer provides enhanced privacy and security to regulated entities and institutions who require additional controls to maintain compliance to regulation and security policy. The features of Zero-knowledge Proof and privacy can be mandated for all transactions.

Channels Layer

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Channels provide interoperability of services related to digital assets, payments and tokenisation. The Overledger Network allows for participants to transfer interoperate enterprise and institutional issued tokens and assets. Connect to many existing payment rails such as SWIFT, SEPA, Faster Payments etc.
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Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger

The connectors to Overledger which grant access to Overledger Network will be open source and soon be made available, allowing for anyone to create a connector and benefit from being part of the ecosystem. Currently the permissionless blockchain space is mostly speculation with little adoption, mainly due to issues that need to be resolved such as scalability, privacy and regulation with permissionless blockchains, however there are some extremely large Enterprises, Banks, Governments, even Central Banks getting heavily involved and going into production albeit mostly in the permissioned blockchain space where such issues are not a problem. Just as each Blockchain has its advantages and disadvantages, parts of Enterprise applications are better suited to Permissioned blockchains (such as more sensitive parts) and permissionless blockchains suited for a higher degree of immutability, thus a Hybrid model requiring interoperability between permissioned, permissionless as well as existing non-DLT applications is required arguably for many years ahead. Just as with cloud computing where everything didn’t suddenly just move up into the cloud, well over a decade later since the birth of the likes of Amazon AWS, hybrid is still very prevalent today with only recently the likes of central banks, banks, governments discussing moving more sensitive workloads to public clouds such as Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud etc.

SIA, Central Banks, Banks, Trading Venues

Quant Network partnered with SIA, a game changer for mass blockchain adoption by Financial Institutions. SIA is the leading financial network provider in Europe that connects over 570 Banks, Central Banks, Trading Venues (stock exchanges etc) to their infrastructure. They provide a dedicated private network / infrastructure for financial institutions. Every European financial institution will either connect via SIA, in partnership with Colt or via SWIFT (and in many cases they will have connectivity with both) in order to access the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
SIA have integrated Overledger into their private infrastructure covering Europe consisting of 570 supernodes called SIAChain which enables each bank, central Bank, trading venue etc to utilise Overledger for interoperability. Some of the largest deployments of blockchain are happening on SIAChain such as the Spunta project where the entire Italian Banking Sector will be using blockchain and due to go live next month. As well as the “Fideiussioni Digitali” initiative (Digital Sureties) to digitize the management of sureties using blockchain technology with the Central Bank of Italy involved.
Central Bank Digital Currencies are going to play a hugely significant role in the future and there is one central Bank currently testing Overledger and Quant are in discussions with 4 others.
Connecting your blockchain / legacy network to Overledger enables the possibility that it could be used by any of these connected Banks, Central Banks, Trading venues etc in their private network (obviously due to the amount of regulation and critical financial infrastructure the options are going to be limited on what they want to connect).
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Oracle

Quant are a Fintech Partner with Oracle, the 2nd largest software company in the world and Oracle are taking Quant’s tech to their clients directly. They have 480,000 clients globally and towards the end of last year Oracle invited Quant to attend Sibos (SWIFT) where they met existing financial services and banking clients and introduced to new ones. By connecting to Overledger this also enables your solution to potentially be used by those 480,000 of Oracle’s global clients.
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SIMBA Chain

SIMBA Chain is a cloud-based, smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps (decentralized applications). The easy-to-use platform is tailored for users, developers, government, and enterprises to quickly deploy blockchain dapps for their enterprise. SIMBA Chain are developing on Quant’s Overledger Blockchain OS to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
SIMBA Chain have recently been awared a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 1100 Organizations and 650+ Applications developed. Partners include Microsoft, Government Blockchain Association, Air Force Research Laboratory, Caterpillar, SAP and EY. Recently they also integrated Unity 3D plugin for Gaming to enable owning, storing, and managing all personal gaming assets across a variety of blockchains.
These are just a few of the companies that Quant have partnered with directly, but the ecosystem for Overledger Network is the Network of Networks. Every connected blockchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple (XRPL), EOS, Stellar, IOTA, DAG, R3’s Corda, Hyperledger Fabric, JP Morgan’s Quorum and other Permissioned Variants of Ethereum) and their associated partners / applications built on them have the ability to connect and interoperate with the other blockchains connected as well as non-DLT networks such as existing payment rails like SWIFT, Faster Payments, SEPA etc. This Network of Network’s effects will grow exponentially as more and more join the ecosystem.
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Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain

Quant Network are also developing the ability to allow developers to build MAPPs that integrate directly with the internet as well as blockchain data. They will enable this via creating a new IP address for blockchains which they are calling Quant IP which will enable traffic to be routed from an IP connection from the Internet through Overledger to the connected blockchains.
Another Quant product called Seeq is a distributed search engine that is able to search and retrieve data from multiple blockchains and display them via html directly from the blockchain. More details will be released about Seeq later this year.
Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain will allow websites to be natively created and served directly from blockchains, without the need to have, run and maintain web servers, web services, SSL certificates etc and all running in a completely trusted, extremely resilient / tamperproof environment. The implications of this are enormous and more details will be released by the team later on this exciting prospect. By connecting your blockchain to Overledger you will also be able to benefit from this.

Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Instead of the current mentality of having the main focus for many projects of listing on exchanges for vast sums of money, why not spend a little time (connectors can be created in as little as a week of development and don’t necessarily even need to be created by the team themselves) and make your blockchain / non-DLT application available to be used by all existing enterprises / members. Not only that but if you also run an Overledger Gateway connecting your blockchain node you also benefit from the transaction fees of the traffic going to it. The connectors are open source and completely free to connect and now with the standardisation of Objects in the recent SDK update the foundations are in place for the launch of Overledger Network with an ETA of Q2 2020. If you would like your favourite blockchain project to interoperate and be part of the ecosystem to further adoption then make the relevant people aware and keep an eye out for further details released in the future.

https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/the-network-of-networks-scalable-interoperability-to-unleash-the-true-potential-of-blockchain-c54e7d373d2d

Thanks to community member Ghost of St. Miklos for contributing the section about regulation as well as Sonic for proofreading.
You can find more about Overledger Network as well as the token utility — here and community member David W. wrote an excellent article “A deeper look into the Quant Network Utility Token (QNT) valuation dynamics and fundamentals”
What is a blockchain operating system and what are the benefits? Introducing Overledger from Quant Network.
Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading
Large Enterprise Adoption of Blockchain is happening, enabled by Quant Network’s Overledger
As well as an 8 Part Series taking an indepth look at Overledger starting with Part 1
submitted by xSeq22x to QuantNetwork [link] [comments]

Here is my statement on the controversial issue of burning CR funds that are meant to be used to build the elastOS ecosystem

Good marketing can be very expensive, and many exchanges require a lump sum of tokens in addition to fees to list. We also need funds for other activities like hackathons, more #FundMyDApp contests and local meetups. From my experience, token burns have ended up providing only a short term boost in price, then to be quickly sold off back to the price before the token burn. Stellar is a perfect example of this financial blunder. If we burn our tokens and the same happens to us, we will not only have significantly less funding for growth, we will also look like fools to the rest of the crypto community, and we will be used as an example for why token burns don't work, just I am using Stellar as an example here.
In my opinion it is far too early to make this kind if decision given the CRC has not even yet received funds to prove how effective we really can be. I think this discussion would be more appropriate to have after the first term of the CRC is completed. If it has proven to not be working after the first term, then I think in the second term of the Council, it should be decided to make some modification. If at the end of the year, not all 10% annual allotted funds have been spent by the council, they will be burned and removed from the total circulating supply.
In regards to the inflation rate, I think we should make adjustments to the distribution of inflation, with 25% going to bitcoin miners (rather than the current 35%, as this is free money and I don't think they will stop merge mining ELA, especially as we increase in price), 40% to DPoS Supernodes (compared to the current 35%, which will provide increased returns for our voters in the community, further encouraging staking their Elastos tokens and keeping less Elastos being sold on the market) and an increase from 30% to 35% for the CRC to fund future growth. This model will increase the benefits & duration of staking from the community, and replace ELA being sold on the market by bitcoin miners with ELA being sold on the market by the CR Council to expedite building the Elastos ecosystem.
If you feel the same way as I do, I hope you can support me for Council so I can do everything I can to make Elastos successful.
submitted by TheHoustonSupernode to Elastos [link] [comments]

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain
There is not going to be one blockchain to rule them all, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Interoperability is key to unlocking the true potential of blockchain, where it will have a profound effect across all industries, creating a secure, trusted and hyper-connected world.
The rise of The Networks of Networks, interconnecting all DLT Networks, existing off-chain networks and even the Internet itself. Where true, scalable interoperability can be achieved without requiring connected chains to fork their code and imposing limitations, without the overhead, bottleneck and single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle. Where it will be quick, easy and free to participate.
It’s time to stop the childish tribalism that’s plagued this space for so long and realise the bigger picture. Tribes fighting amongst themselves over a tiny insignificant island where there is a whole world out there to conquer if they work together. A rising tide lifts all boats and with the birth of The Network of Networks all connected projects can benefit from the efforts of each other, to usher in Mass adoption of Blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/m90f8021woi41.png?width=683&format=png&auto=webp&s=2b0feff5cd976d80472cbdc6f9694aaa76ba0b3f
In this article I will discuss the foundations that are being laid in preparation for the release of Overledger Network, The Network of Networks to make all of this possible and to unleash the true potential of blockchain with a secure, hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Table of Contents:
  1. Overledger SDK Update
  2. Standards
  3. Security
  4. Regulation
  5. Overledger Network
  6. The Five Ingredients of Interoperability
  7. Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger
  8. Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain
  9. Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Overledger SDK Update

Quant have just released their Overledger SDK update which has enabled standardisation of objects to abstract and simplify how to interact with different types of blockchains (UXTO and Account-based) in a common model. As well as the ability to directly deploy, invoke and query smart contracts directly through Overledger. I strongly recommend reading the teams Overledger SDK Update which explains it in more detail and includes example use cases of how Overledger is being used and the benefits it brings. Dr Luke Riley also did a fantastic job providing an in-depth demo of the Overledger SDK Update via Video as well.
https://youtu.be/PbpaZpe4mTQ

“This update sets the foundations to build the ecosystem for Overleger Network, allowing stakeholders other than Quant to write any type (DLT and non-DLT) Overledger connectors and sets up the ecosystem with multiple entry points for Overledger Gateways. These updates open up the integration capabilities of Overledger to 3rd parties and create the foundations for the Overledger Network”

Standards

“Trusted standards mean that industry doesn’t need to reinvent the wheel, that innovations will be compatible and work with existing technology, and that products and services will be trusted too. Governments use standards as trusted solutions to complement regulation, and they give peace of mind to consumers who know they are not putting themselves or their families at risk.” — Acting ISO Secretary-General Kevin McKinley
The foundations need to align with internationally recognised standards as they play a crucial role in ensuring interoperability with new and existing technology and validates a product meets the best practices / regulation required to ensure Enterprises remains in compliance. CEO of Quant, Gilbert Verdian, founded the ISO TC 307 standard covering blockchain as a whole, which 56 countries are working towards today.
Countries involved with ISO TC 307 — https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604.html?view=participation
Gilbert Verdian is the chairman for the ISO TC 307 working group for interoperability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems as well as being chairman for Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology for BSI (British Standards Institution) which represent the UK and includes companies such as Quant, IBM, Microsoft, HSBC, BAE Systems, Huawei as well as a number of UK Government bodies such as BEIS — Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Defence Science and Technology and the National Cyber Security Centre.
The standardisation updates to the Overledger SDK aligns with the work in ISO TC 307 and academic work from Dr Paolo Tasca and Dr Claudio Tessone to provide users with a clear distributed ledger data standard. This will enable everyone to easily create connectors in a standard way, facilitating interoperability with all of the connected blockchains / non-DLT networks that are already connected to Overledger through Overledger Gateways.

Security

Cybersecurity is in Quant’s DNA. The team have a rich heritage of working for Governments, banks and industry for over 20 years protecting organisations and people from security threats. Before Quant, Gilbert Verdian was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) where he was in charge of security for the entire payments infrastructure in the UK (£6 Trillion per year).
Gilbert has led a team determined to take security to another level, protecting a critical part of the UK’s infrastructure, protecting UK citizens and businesses from fraud and risk and, by extension, allowing them to live as they want to. Under Gilbert’s guidance, Vocalink security is not merely best-in-class, but setting a new standard. — https://connect.vocalink.com/2017/july/a-winning-streak/
In addition to Quant being selected as a Guarantor for Pay.UK, Gilbert has also been appointed to the Cybersecurity Advisory Board (Pay.UK is the UK’s leading retail payments authority and runs the UK’s retail payments operations, which includes Bacs, Faster Payments and Cheques.)
The pillars of security are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. As such, they have used their experience in running payment and financial infrastructure and critical national infrastructure for nations and embedded these principles into every aspect of Overledger.

Regulation

Regulation is playing an ever increasing role for blockchain. Standards and Security naturally complement and help define regulation. The verticals Quant are involved in with regards to regulation span the globe. Gilbert helped shape the conversation about consumer data protection rights during his time as CISO of NSW Health, and is continuing to serve as a cornerstone for policy within the adoption of blockchain in public infrastructure. Quant serves as a founding member of INATBA (The International Association of Trusted Blockchain Applications), which is the formal governing body of the European Blockchain Partnership, all of which is overseen in Brussels by the EU. More locally, Gilbert and team are in consistent contact with the House of Lords within the UK, and advises the FCA in matters regarding cryptoassets.
https://preview.redd.it/oqdtejxpwoi41.png?width=735&format=png&auto=webp&s=874278a25adf7ed76f2c0d78a78898bc904e1780
As recently seen in the SDK update, Overledger can serve as a key component of automatic compliance of governance bodies’ financial regulation, shown here by an Overledger instance reporting to the BoE’s Prudential Regulation Authority. Project BARAC, stewarded by University College London, is a project examining the impact Automatic Regulation as administered by Blockchain can have on the Federal Government. Most notably, the FCA and R3, the developers of Corda, are involved here. Gilbert’s recent engagements with the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston also seem to revolve around this very topic, with the Boston Fed pilot-testing a Supervisor Node for automatic regulatory compliance. While at P2PFISY 2019, it was noted by Gilbert that Raphael Auer’s “Regulation Automata” aligns very well with the vision of Overledger, with Paolo Tasca, former CSO of Quant, more recently co-hosting a recent blockchain panel with him. Raphael’s ideas will most likely be taken into consideration by the BIS, as they recently announced a trial of a 6 central banks collaboration centered around exploring CBDC, and are in the early stages of installing Innovation Hubs in Hong Kong, Switzerland, and Singapore.
Gilbert Verdian with Guy Dietrich (Managing Director at Rockefeller Capital who is also on the Board at Quant) attending a meeting with the Financial Conduct Authority

Overledger Network

https://preview.redd.it/ixxeqbfywoi41.png?width=1684&format=png&auto=webp&s=cc91a25af64cfb09b550344893adcc7dad3837af
The Overledger Network is a network of networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies. Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains. The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with.
As per the example use case in the recent update a Bank can run an Overledger Gateway to provide access to the various consortiums hosted on a variety of blockchains including Corda, Hyperledger Fabric and JP Morgan’s Quorum as well as access to the legacy / non-DLT platforms. Should they want to utilise a public blockchain as well in a hybrid scenario then they also have the option of using a Overledger Gateway hosted by a community member.
https://preview.redd.it/b1bx8wm0xoi41.png?width=1096&format=png&auto=webp&s=e70a9ce6c8c42aa880e0b9d1fe8ab4f3b453867e
https://preview.redd.it/8a8c13k1xoi41.png?width=1252&format=png&auto=webp&s=02cd33a79487a2a74af8a2d0f0831c06d5f62005
The Overledger Gateways contain several layers which we will explore some of their features below:

Overledger Operating System

https://preview.redd.it/7hvr91d4xoi41.png?width=1197&format=png&auto=webp&s=6e6c9b38c6e0ce133f8916bab08aad3d6b218051
Overledger allows connection to any blockchain / DAG as well as easily integrating with existing non-DLT environments. It does this without adding the overhead of yet another blockchain / consensus in the middle, ensuring that it’s scalable and doesn’t contain a single point of failure. Nor does it require the connected blockchains to fork their code to integrate and place restrictions on what can be implemented going forward. All of this is done in a secure, trustless manner where transactions are signed and encrypted client side so the contents can’t be viewed / modified as they pass through Overledger. It currently connects all of the leading permissioned and permissionless blockchains used by enterprises today. This article explains the differences between other interoperability solutions and the benefits of Quant’s approach

The Five Ingredients of Interoperability:

Recently there was an interoperability webinar with Fintech connect with speakers such as R3’s CTO Richard Gendal Brown, along with representatives from the Bank of England, Deutsche Boerse, Nasdaq, ArchaxEx and SwissRe. Richard Gendal Brown from R3 wrote about the Five key Ingredients of Interoperability:
https://preview.redd.it/l6edi3a9xoi41.png?width=2356&format=png&auto=webp&s=2f9129d9b61ba0a083e264222fc7df2dd0a2256c
  1. INTEGRATE with existing business systems — Businesses aren’t going to replace their existing applications for new blockchain ones, they need to integrate with their existing systems.
  2. INITIATE Payments on existing rails or blockchain rails — Needs to be able to make a payment / settlement using a wide variety of existing payment rails (off chain) as well as blockchain rails, ensuring delivery vs payment can be achieved with certainty that they have happened.
  3. INTERCHAIN applications and smart contracts that can be deployed / executed across protocols — Enabling a solution built on Corda such as Marco Polo to easily connect to a solution on another platform such as Vakt on Ethereum or CargoSmart on Hyperledger Fabric etc
  4. INTRACHAIN applications that benefit from value add of same underlying protocol — What happens when networks such as Marco Polo and Contour both running on Corda want to interoperate and the additional value and benefit that can be achieved.
  5. INTERCHANGE applications to switch platforms — What happens if you want to interchange one platform for another. Can you achieve that holy grail of interoperability by being able to be completely agnostic to the underlying platform?
Overledger meets all of these key ingredients in performing interoperability. Overledger enables existing business systems to benefit from blockchain connectivity by adding as little as 3 lines of code to their existing applications. No need to completely rewrite / replace their existing systems and all done in the most common programming languages such as Java and JavaScript.
https://preview.redd.it/9whqtamdxoi41.png?width=1127&format=png&auto=webp&s=1bdf408f7fe76a9fdd313ef2bc3032982d42c371
At QuantX in December they announced Overledger Interchange which enables settlement on a variety of existing non-dlt payment rails such as Faster Payments, BACS, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT as well as on DLT payment rails such as with Central Bank Digital Currencies, Stablecoins and XRP. It also facilitates Cross Chain Atomic Swaps using Hash Time Locked Contracts ensuring Delivery vs Payment is achieved. Interchange is at the centre of the discussions Quant has had with traditional exchanges in capital markets and central banks and is a technology financial services have been missing and was built it address client needs.
Overledger enables interoperability within the same ecosystem such as Corda DAPP to another Corda DAPP etc as well as interoperability between any of the connected permissionless and permissioned blockchains.
Quants blockchain agnostic Operating System enables users to benefit from using the best features from different chains in combination and migrate between them, preventing Vendor or Tech Lock in without having to completely rewrite existing applications, achieving the holy grail of interoperability. It enables developers to quickly test a variety of connected blockchains in a sandbox environment to see which is best suited for their requirements, starting with just 3 lines of code.

Transactions Services Layer

https://preview.redd.it/swjgywqhxoi41.png?width=771&format=png&auto=webp&s=ce59d63936b6c67b27173ba8655996c28421641c
The Transaction Services layer handles more complex features of Overledger. Allowing for applications to request services such as cross-chain atomic swaps, treaty contracts (Multi Chain Smart Contracts as well as enabling smart contract functionality even on blockchains that don’t support smart contracts natively such as Bitcoin) and transaction brokering (using heuristic analysis to determine which method is the fastest / cheapest out of the various payment rails)

Financial Services Layer

https://preview.redd.it/r1v1u3tkxoi41.png?width=740&format=png&auto=webp&s=8836c2cba3370d784601cbc97c98a29172581da6
Financial services features can be called upon by participants and applications to use crosschain and cross-platform. Financial Services specific use cases can use the features in Overledger to operate across networks. This layer provides enhanced privacy and security to regulated entities and institutions who require additional controls to maintain compliance to regulation and security policy. The features of Zero-knowledge Proof and privacy can be mandated for all transactions.

Channels Layer

https://preview.redd.it/5m5pwjaoxoi41.png?width=752&format=png&auto=webp&s=d5e2fbfb47042067d2c35ab8796474a3209152a4
Channels provide interoperability of services related to digital assets, payments and tokenisation. The Overledger Network allows for participants to transfer interoperate enterprise and institutional issued tokens and assets. Connect to many existing payment rails such as SWIFT, SEPA, Faster Payments etc.
Overledger Network — Network of Networks

Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger

The connectors to Overledger which grant access to Overledger Network will be open source and soon be made available, allowing for anyone to create a connector and benefit from being part of the ecosystem. Currently the permissionless blockchain space is mostly speculation with little adoption, mainly due to issues that need to be resolved such as scalability, privacy and regulation with permissionless blockchains, however there are some extremely large Enterprises, Banks, Governments, even Central Banks getting heavily involved and going into production albeit mostly in the permissioned blockchain space where such issues are not a problem. Just as each Blockchain has its advantages and disadvantages, parts of Enterprise applications are better suited to Permissioned blockchains (such as more sensitive parts) and permissionless blockchains suited for a higher degree of immutability, thus a Hybrid model requiring interoperability between permissioned, permissionless as well as existing non-DLT applications is required arguably for many years ahead. Just as with cloud computing where everything didn’t suddenly just move up into the cloud, well over a decade later since the birth of the likes of Amazon AWS, hybrid is still very prevalent today with only recently the likes of central banks, banks, governments discussing moving more sensitive workloads to public clouds such as Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud etc.

SIA, Central Banks, Banks, Trading Venues

Quant Network partnered with SIA, a game changer for mass blockchain adoption by Financial Institutions. SIA is the leading financial network provider in Europe that connects over 570 Banks, Central Banks, Trading Venues (stock exchanges etc) to their infrastructure. They provide a dedicated private network / infrastructure for financial institutions. Every European financial institution will either connect via SIA, in partnership with Colt or via SWIFT (and in many cases they will have connectivity with both) in order to access the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
SIA have integrated Overledger into their private infrastructure covering Europe consisting of 570 supernodes called SIAChain which enables each bank, central Bank, trading venue etc to utilise Overledger for interoperability. Some of the largest deployments of blockchain are happening on SIAChain such as the Spunta project where the entire Italian Banking Sector will be using blockchain and due to go live next month. As well as the “Fideiussioni Digitali” initiative (Digital Sureties) to digitize the management of sureties using blockchain technology with the Central Bank of Italy involved.
Central Bank Digital Currencies are going to play a hugely significant role in the future and there is one central Bank currently testing Overledger and Quant are in discussions with 4 others.
Connecting your blockchain / legacy network to Overledger enables the possibility that it could be used by any of these connected Banks, Central Banks, Trading venues etc in their private network (obviously due to the amount of regulation and critical financial infrastructure the options are going to be limited on what they want to connect).
https://preview.redd.it/pmbmsyauxoi41.png?width=1336&format=png&auto=webp&s=a9f3dc1d5df4300207605c01838bf86bb6c1fd80

Oracle

Quant are a Fintech Partner with Oracle, the 2nd largest software company in the world and Oracle are taking Quant’s tech to their clients directly. They have 480,000 clients globally and towards the end of last year Oracle invited Quant to attend Sibos (SWIFT) where they met existing financial services and banking clients and introduced to new ones. By connecting to Overledger this also enables your solution to potentially be used by those 480,000 of Oracle’s global clients.

https://preview.redd.it/1zz702ywxoi41.png?width=1220&format=png&auto=webp&s=f56f2b9257ae6c4b2357c58339061e24da4933b3

SIMBA Chain

SIMBA Chain is a cloud-based, smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps (decentralized applications). The easy-to-use platform is tailored for users, developers, government, and enterprises to quickly deploy blockchain dapps for their enterprise. SIMBA Chain are developing on Quant’s Overledger Blockchain OS to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
SIMBA Chain have recently been awared a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 1100 Organizations and 650+ Applications developed. Partners include Microsoft, Government Blockchain Association, Air Force Research Laboratory, Caterpillar, SAP and EY. Recently they also integrated Unity 3D plugin for Gaming to enable owning, storing, and managing all personal gaming assets across a variety of blockchains.
These are just a few of the companies that Quant have partnered with directly, but the ecosystem for Overledger Network is the Network of Networks. Every connected blockchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple (XRPL), EOS, Stellar, IOTA, DAG, R3’s Corda, Hyperledger Fabric, JP Morgan’s Quorum and other Permissioned Variants of Ethereum) and their associated partners / applications built on them have the ability to connect and interoperate with the other blockchains connected as well as non-DLT networks such as existing payment rails like SWIFT, Faster Payments, SEPA etc. This Network of Network’s effects will grow exponentially as more and more join the ecosystem.

https://preview.redd.it/x5t16hazxoi41.png?width=590&format=png&auto=webp&s=71cd81b0781b082fa6c8a4470ffc9325d08ed0f5

Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain

Quant Network are also developing the ability to allow developers to build MAPPs that integrate directly with the internet as well as blockchain data. They will enable this via creating a new IP address for blockchains which they are calling Quant IP which will enable traffic to be routed from an IP connection from the Internet through Overledger to the connected blockchains.
Another Quant product called Seeq is a distributed search engine that is able to search and retrieve data from multiple blockchains and display them via html directly from the blockchain. More details will be released about Seeq later this year.
Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain will allow websites to be natively created and served directly from blockchains, without the need to have, run and maintain web servers, web services, SSL certificates etc and all running in a completely trusted, extremely resilient / tamperproof environment. The implications of this are enormous and more details will be released by the team later on this exciting prospect. By connecting your blockchain to Overledger you will also be able to benefit from this.

Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Instead of the current mentality of having the main focus for many projects of listing on exchanges for vast sums of money, why not spend a little time (connectors can be created in as little as a week of development and don’t necessarily even need to be created by the team themselves) and make your blockchain / non-DLT application available to be used by all existing enterprises / members. Not only that but if you also run an Overledger Gateway connecting your blockchain node you also benefit from the transaction fees of the traffic going to it. The connectors are open source and completely free to connect and now with the standardisation of Objects in the recent SDK update the foundations are in place for the launch of Overledger Network with an ETA of Q2 2020. If you would like your favourite blockchain project to interoperate and be part of the ecosystem to further adoption then make the relevant people aware and keep an eye out for further details released in the future.

https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/the-network-of-networks-scalable-interoperability-to-unleash-the-true-potential-of-blockchain-c54e7d373d2d

Thanks to community member Ghost of St. Miklos for contributing the section about regulation as well as Sonic for proofreading.
You can find more about Overledger Network as well as the token utility — here and community member David W. wrote an excellent article “A deeper look into the Quant Network Utility Token (QNT) valuation dynamics and fundamentals”
What is a blockchain operating system and what are the benefits? Introducing Overledger from Quant Network.
Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading
Large Enterprise Adoption of Blockchain is happening, enabled by Quant Network’s Overledger
As well as an 8 Part Series taking an indepth look at Overledger starting with Part 1
submitted by xSeq22x to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Cosmos Hub ATOM Token and the commonly misunderstood staking token - Yield does not equal Profit

Cosmos Hub ATOM Token and the commonly misunderstood staking token - Yield does not equal Profit
This is part three where we look at the ATOM token and general misconceptions around staking tokens. Part one can be found here and part Two can be found here

The ATOM token

I often see a lot of confusion around what the ATOM token is used for, so let me clarify:
  • The ATOM token is NOT used for all staking / transactions across the entire Cosmos Ecosystem. It is specific to only the Cosmos Hub. The Cosmos hub is one of many hubs / zones within the Cosmos Ecosystem. There are other hubs live today such as IRIS (which has its own token IRIS) and Sentinel due to launch later this month (which has its own token SENT). Each Zone will also have its own token to incentivise validators to secure their zone.
  • Transactions fees paid for the Cosmos Hub Do Not have to be paid using ATOM, a wide selection of different tokens will be able to be used to pay transaction fees such as BTC, ETH etc. The incentive for staking is that you will receive a proportion of these fees in the various currencies depending on the number of ATOMs staked.
  • It is NOT a currency, nor your normal token that you invest in and just HODL on your ledger. It is a staking token used to secure the Cosmos Hub. ATOM is hyper inflationary (which rewards those that stake the token to provide security to the Cosmos Hub and punishes those that don’t stake via decrease in value per ATOM via inflation.
  • The Top 100 Validators which stake the most atoms are selected for validating / creating new transactions
ATOMs are like ASICs, just as ASICs are a piece of capital you need in order to mine POW chains like Bitcoin, ATOMs are a piece of capital that you need in order to stake on the cosmos hub and earn transaction fees going through that hub. If a lot of ASICs are already in use it is very difficult to attack the network and similarly if a lot of ATOMs are staked, then it is very difficult for someone to buy a large portion of the ATOMs to attack the network. You can read the document explaining the token by the team here as well as the video below (time stamped from 44:30) as well as here

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hREydu6Llac&t=2670s

Staking Tokens

Staking tokens are very commonly misunderstood by people, they assume its a passive income where they can earn 10–20% for doing nothing but staking their tokens. Rewards are created by minting new tokens via Inflation, this depreciates the asset of each token by increasing total supply of the tokens. To counter the negative effect of inflation, you can stake your tokens to earn a reward which is greater than the inflation increases. If there was 20% inflation and 100% of the tokens were staked, then there would be no rewards. It’s would just be like projects increased their total supply when doing coin swaps such as VEN going to VET where they increased the total supply of the tokens and everyone received the same proportion. Those that do not stake are punished as they are not receiving the % increase in new supply and so their proportion is diluted.
There are many examples of some version of the following: “Earn a 15% yield per annum when you stake on x network!” This is at best misleading and at worst potentially fraudulent depending on the jurisdiction where these claims are being made. It causes token holders to evaluate and hold PoS tokens on a basis that isn’t applicable or relevant. Even worse, using these words incorrectly can lead regulators to draw unnecessary negative conclusions about how to tax and regulate these networks/tokens: “If you are calling it yield then it should be taxed as income…” Staking rewards — and the possibility of slashing — are a set of incentives that encourage token holders and validators to secure a PoS blockchain. In return, they maintain or grow their relative share of token holdings in the network. Staking creates the “skin in the game” necessary for good behavior such as running nodes in the network and discouraging bad behaviors like failing to remain online or double signing. Staking rewards do NOT exist to provide an income stream to token holders. Think instead, “by staking I can increase my network participation (ownership if you like) by 0.3% over the following year” or “if I do not stake, my relative participation/ownership in the network will be diluted by 1.5% over the next 12 months”. The economic rationale for staking a PoS token is not to receive “yield” (it doesn’t exist) but because you believe that by doing so you will be growing your relative interest in the network and also contributing to significant token appreciation.
The above is taken from a great article which can be found here which explains the commonly misunderstood Staking Token and related terms such as Yield and Inflation.

Basic Example of how this works

To see how it works let’s look at a basic example. For simplicity assume there are only 2 Validators, “Validator 1" and “Validator 2" and there is a current total supply of 1000 tokens. 300 tokens are being staked with each Validator, with the validator for each staking 150 tokens and the delegators also staking 150 tokens. 60% of the total supply is staked whilst 40% is not staked.

https://preview.redd.it/en0kuks1deb31.png?width=1100&format=png&auto=webp&s=b8a16460fa277be3f1a7d8000af672573b884f51

Again, to keep it simple rather than do the rewards per block i am just going to use the yearly figures. So, if total supply is 1000 and inflation is set at 20% then there will be 200 tokens to be minted over a year to be used for rewards and added to the total supply. So total supply now becomes 1200 and the 200 tokens are distributed according to the diagram below (and using the commission / staking values in the diagram above)

https://preview.redd.it/5iwj4bo3deb31.png?width=2640&format=png&auto=webp&s=9519f8d171e78b2a255644a07e3887b8ee15ab9c
So now that the 200 tokens have been minted the total supply has now increased to 1200 and we can compare how the proportions of supply have changed.
The users that didn’t stake — initially had 40% of the supply, they have been penalized for not staking and now only own 33.33% of the supply. (Note they haven’t had any tokens removed from them it’s because additional tokens have been minted and they haven’t received a proportion of them by not staking.) — a decrease of 6.66%
Delegator using validator charging 20% commission — Initially had 15% of the supply and now has 15.84% of the supply — an increase of 0.84%
Validator charging 20% commission — Initially had 15% of the supply now has 17.5% of the supply — an increase of 2.5%
Validator charging 10% commission — Initially had 15% of the supply now has 17.08% of the supply — an increase of 2.08%
Delegator using validator charging 10% commission — Initially had 15% of the supply and now has 16.26% of the supply — an increase of 1.25%

https://preview.redd.it/2s0yutj5deb31.png?width=1100&format=png&auto=webp&s=481e4073b3ea25d9f2919693b94c7863ed44f652
You can see how the users that don’t stake get penalized by not receiving rewards with the increase of additional supply. The proportion of supply that they lose gets transferred to those that stake.

21 Day unbonding period

To protect against a validator attacking the network and then immediately withdrawing his stake, the Cosmos Hub is enforcing a 21-day unbonding period. During this period, staked Atoms do not receive rewards anymore, but slashing is still possible. This means your Atoms are illiquid for 21-days after you decide to stop staking. You will not be able to trade them on an exchange etc until the 21 days have passed. There are however exchanges now looking at offering services where you keep your ATOM on their exchange, and they stake them for you. This has advantages of being able to day trade etc whilst still earning rewards to counter inflation. The downsides are that they normally charge high commission (30%), plus security wise its not great to have everyone leaving their tokens on an exchange as has been proven time and time again. The other potential issue is that it gives the exchanges a lot of voting power over the network if everyone uses them which creates centralisation and may be more inclined to vote on for governance that benefits them. EOS has this issue.
Whale Exchange, Newdex, Hufu, Bigone, and several other exchanges and wallets, have been elected as the top 10 BPs. In the meanwhile, the original supernodes, EOS Newyork, EOS42, EOS Authority, and EOS Canada, all have dropped out the top 21 rankings. Huobi Pool continues to see its dominance. At present, two of the top 5 ranked super nodes belong to one entity: EOSLaomao and Bigone exchanges both belong to the individual Laomao and team. The interests of the two are closely tied, and the strong essentially becomes stronger. And now we are seeing a phenomenon where an overarching number of top BPs are coming from mainland China, and in other words, we are seeing EOS even more centralized than before. Most of the top supernodes currently as of publishing date are either based in China or ran by a Chinese team Brian, the head of the EOS Amsterdam community, also believes that the exchange is considered to be the “leader in the ecosystem”. He is more worried, however, that the supernodes are almost occupied by mainland China nodes, leading to network security vulnerability, centralization and long-term negative PR. This would subsequently bring down the price of the token.
https://globalcoinresearch.com/2019/07/11/the-rising-trend-of-exchanges-participating-as-eos-bps-eos-becoming-even-more-centralized/?source=post_page---------------------------

Slashing

Staking is not without its risks and it’s important to choose a secure and trusted validator or risk having your tokens that are staked slashed. On the 29th June the first validator had all tokens that were staked with them slashed by 5% due to a misconfiguration which caused them to double sign a block. Whilst in this case, the slashing was neither the consequence of an attack on the network nor the result of a compromised validator key, it demonstrates that slashing is real and that validators should carefully design their infrastructure to mitigate the risk of losing their own and their delegators’ funds.

https://preview.redd.it/m0iqeqpddeb31.png?width=542&format=png&auto=webp&s=aaa36fc6a95a4f9f366e8cc7e980343117cb8cca

How to choose which Validator to delegate to?

The first metric I look at when evaluating validators is how much self-bond they have. If they have 30% or higher self-bond, this gives me confidence that they don’t want to get slashed as much as I (delegator) don’t want to get slashed. When a validator has low self-bond (1% or less), it makes me less likely to bond to them because they are playing with other peoples’ money, and there’s less incentive for them to bolster their setups. Many of the top validators are highly visible by making their contributions to the ecosystem known. A lot of them have built useful tools that add to the richness of the Cosmos ecosystem, and thus you recognize their brand through their contribution. For example, you would know about a validator because you’ve used their block explorer. All this of course isn’t telling of the hardness of their setups. This part is hard to verify yourself without going into their data centers and auditing their servers yourself. For now, doing your research on what they’ve got set up as described by their website/content is the best option to understanding what kind of setup they’ve built.
https://medium.com/@huobiwallet/cosmos-ama-on-huobi-wallet-d6b75f6ed492
Tendermint uses Proof of Stake where all validators are known before hand. The current maximum amount of Validators is 100. Validators run a full node for the Cosmos hub and provide its security, as well as being able to vote on Governance about future decisions for the Hub. The 100 Validators which stake the most ATOMs are selected. Currently the minimum amount of ATOM staked to be in the top 100 is 39,047 ATOMs.
The amount of ATOMs staked by a Validator is a combination of ATOM’s that the validator personally holds as well as Delegators, those that rather than run a validator, delegate their stake to another validator and receive a % of their rewards depending on the amount they delegate. There is normally a commision fee that the validator takes as a fee as a % of the rewards received for delegating to them which can normally ranges from 0% to 30% (can see in the picture below). This pays for the equipment, wages etc needed to run a secure validator.
https://preview.redd.it/w7fudoigdeb31.png?width=770&format=png&auto=webp&s=49835b8cb0972090187765a69366a143baadf342
Tendermint requires 2/3 of votes for consensus to be reached. Currently 2/3 of the vote are controlled by the Top 16 Validators (so effectively if these all agree to vote on a proposal then that would be sufficient without the input of the other 84).
If a validator / group of validators control more than 1/3 of the vote then whilst they can’t force any changes through, they can prevent any further proposals from being accepted that they don’t agree with regardless of what other validators vote. So the idea is to have the voting power distributed widely throughout the top 100 for more decentralisation.

Calculating the values for Cosmos

Current Total Supply:

There is no fixed total supply of ATOMs and the total supply will increase each year by between 7% and 20% due to inflation.
https://stargate.cosmos.network/staking/pool
{ "not_bonded_tokens": "71341288426570", "bonded_tokens": "170079253911157" }
Bonded Tokens + Not Bonded Tokens = Total Supply.
The values in the API include 6 decimal places so you need to divide the number by 1,000,000. So to work out the total supply it would be:
(71341288426570 + 170079253911157) / 1,000,000 = 241,420,542.337727‬ ATOM
You then have a minimum of 7% and a maximum of 20% inflation per year on top of that depending on how much has been staked.

Circulating Supply:

The only tokens that are under a vesting period are for All in Bits Inc (AiB, the company doing business as “Tendermint”). They have a total of 23,619,895.81 ATOMs vested which are split into two sets, each subject to a different form of vesting.
The first set consists of 1,777,707 ATOMs allocated to 44 addresses owned by AiB founders, contractors, and employees, current and past. These atoms are non-transferable for 12 months, but can be used for staking and governance. These will become unlocked on the 13th March 2020.
The remaining set of AiBs atoms are held in an AiB multisig and vest continuously starting 2 months after genesis. This is a total of 21,842,188.81 ATOMs.
Each month 992,826.76 of these are released on the 13th (Starting May 13th 2019 and finishing on March 13th 2021.
So Circulating Supply = Total Supply — (Amount Vested by AIB)
Circulating Supply = 241,039,982.546951 — (1,777,707– (21,842,188.81 — (3 x 992,826.76)) (represents 3 months which have been released so far)
Circulating Supply = 220,398,567.016951 ATOMs
Current Market Cap: $872,778,325.39

How to work out Profit from Staking

The Annual reward yield is currently 10.19 % which can be seen from sites such as here
This is the bit where people get confused with staking. They see 10.19 % reward and think easy money, passive income etc. What you need to understand is that these rewards are from new ATOMs being minted and added to the supply via inflation. And so with a higher supply the value of each ATOM is worth less.

Calculate effective reward rate in ATOMs

((100% — Commission Rate%) * Yield Rate) — Inflation
So if you delegate with a validator which charges 20% commission
It would be (0.8 * 10.19) — 7.66 = 0.492% a year in ATOMs

Calculate effective profit in FIAT terms

ATOMs hasn’t been trading for a full year but if we take the first value in CMC which is $6.44 and is currently $3.95 which is a decrease of 38.66% per ATOM. The yearly reward yield is 10.19% so in profit terms its 10.19–38.66 = -28.47%
Profit in USD Terms = 10.19–38.66 = a loss of 28.47% in USD

Calculate effective profit in BTC terms

At the start of trading each ATOM was worth 0.00164490 satoshis, as of the time of this writing they are now 0.00037155 satoshis which is a decrease of 77.41%
Profit in BTC terms = Reward Rate + Change in Price per ATOM in BTC over year
Profit in BTC Terms = 10.19–77.41 = a loss of 67.22 % in BTC
Note that these calculations do not include transaction costs for traffic going through the Hub. Once IBC is released (minimum viable product version is supposed to be at the end of this year, so i would estimate mid next year for full feature version to be released), adoption of the ecosystem will increase and zones will be transferring between each other over hubs then additional revenue is earned via transaction fees of other tokens.
This site you can see the correct value for Total Supply, % Bonded and Inflation Rate https://www.mintscan.io/
Be warned there are some other sites such as https://stakingrewards.com/asset/atom which show incorrect values (for example they say the staking ratio is currently 88.06% which is incorrect and skews the figures for rewards. Mintscan is accurate and the API site that i listed before is direct from the Cosmos Official website so is correct.
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/cosmos-atom-token-and-the-commonly-misunderstood-staking-tokens-part-three-958c295c5b78
submitted by xSeq22x to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

From Platform-based Token to the Public Chain, Will CoinEx Embrace a Paradigm Shift?

From Platform-based Token to the Public Chain, Will CoinEx Embrace a Paradigm Shift?
The platform-based tokens shine in 2019, but such prosperity does not cover the disadvantage of their single use. How to find new application scenarios in addition to repurchase and destruction, and transaction fee deduction? The answer given by Binance is to expand the ecosystem of the public chain and develop the platform token into a public-chain token in a broader sense like ETH.
Not long ago, CoinEx announced its plan to launch a public chain. The CET will not just be a token listed on the platform, but also the basic token in the ecosystem of public chains. Unlike the Binance Chain whose partners serve as its nodes, CoinEx Chain chooses nodes according to the votes of ordinary users. Obviously, this is another paradigm shift for the platform-based tokens to expand the application scenarios.
CoinEx Chain is a public chain created by CoinEx’s professional blockchain underlying R&D team for DEX. Different from other DEXs, CoinEx uses three public chains: DEX public chain, Smart public chain and Privacy public chain, three of which parallel each other. They focus on transactions, smart contracts, and privacy respectively, and interoperate through “IBC protocols”.
How to get involved in CoinEx Chain’s ecosystem? A detailed interpretation of the CoinEx DEX’s public-chain node recruitment is provided below.
How to participate in the CET nodes election?
CoinEx’s nodes election rules are simple: Any holder who stakes at least 5 million CET on the chain is qualified, and the first 42 spots in the rankings will automatically be valid validators entitled to the right to generate a block and share proceeds. It should be noted that the process of electing a node is continuous and each block will be ranked.
Responsibilities of validators include preventing double signing and DDos attacks, being online all the time, upgrading nodes and configuration, building the private key storage architecture, and participating in community governance. Besides, there are server hardware requirements for running a node as below:
https://preview.redd.it/qhqk6uliftt31.png?width=1366&format=png&auto=webp&s=02addf13f8d9e619b70ba75e3a6eef2f1313e6f9
After the mainnet is online (expected in early November), the CET withdrawn from CoinEx can be staked on the chain. Once completed, the staking can be canceled at any time, but it takes 21 days for the CET to return to the account.
Private investors holding less than 5 million CET will be entitled to the voting power in the election of validators and receive bonus as rewards.
How are the returns on being a CET validator?
With a study on CoinEx’s node return model, you may find returns on validators mainly come from two parts, respectively, the block reward and transaction fee.
The transaction fee includes the gas fee in the usual sense and the function fee. Relevant gas fees will be charged for any transaction initiated on the chain, and the corresponding function fee will be charged for special operations on the DEX chain. For example, equivalent to a DEX broker, a node will charge users for such operations as order matching, token issuing, trading pairs creating, automated market making with Bancor and address alias setting.
In terms of block rewards, the CoinEx Foundation will provide a total of 315 million CET for five consecutive years. To be specific, it will send out about 105 million CET in the first year and 10 CET for block rewards. Similar to the bitcoin design, block rewards will gradually decrease over time, yet at various levels of frequency. Every year 2 CET will be deducted from the reward for each block.
https://preview.redd.it/tmocf00lftt31.png?width=1566&format=png&auto=webp&s=e68bed2c3513e4665a2101229a0d781ff31f53f5
The basic data of CoinEx is shown in the figure below. According to this condition, the estimated annual income of transaction fee for CoinEx’s validators comes at around 38 million CET, and, if calculated at 50% for the staking rate of the whole network, the annualized rate of return for CoinEx’s validators is 10%.
That is to say, in a case of successful re-election of CoinEx’s validators, the basic token-standard return rate will be around 10% for the first year. This figure will be higher due to the relatively small total stakes in the beginning.
How to calculate the actual income of the year?
Here we’ve summarized a calculation formula where numbers can be quickly inserted for your reference. Suppose the total stakes on a node are a, p% of which is the CET staked by the node itself and q% of which is CET entrusted to be staked by retail traders, the total stakes of the whole network are b, the actual returns distributed by the whole network are c, and the commission ratio of the node is k, then the actual income of the validator for the year is ac(p%+kq%)/b.
For example. Suppose the total stakes at a node are 10 million CET, including 8 million CET staked by the node itself and 2 million CET staked by ordinary CET holders and the commission ratio of the node is 10%. Calculated with the total stakes of the whole network being 1 billion CET and the actual returns distributed being 150 million CET, the actual income of the validator for the year is 1.23 million CET. In such conditions, the annualized rate of return for CET is around 15.3%.
So we can see that the actual income of the CoinEx’s validators can be divided into two parts in terms of asset ownership: incomes from CET staked by the node itself and commissions from CET staked by ordinary holders.
https://preview.redd.it/4ghx0sloftt31.png?width=634&format=png&auto=webp&s=7b8df5a18cc8033c77473017cee7182f1c080c8b
In other words, if a validator can keep the CET public chain in safety, contribute to the development of CoinEx’s ecosystem, and help it gain more attention and favor from ordinary users, it can receive an annualized income that is higher than the basic staking income. Retail users may stake their CET on more professional and responsible nodes, as well as sharing the dividends of the node and the CET public chain.
In the nodes election, the Matthew effect has always been a topic of criticism. So will ordinary token holders drive the centralization of validators according to CoinEx’s rules? The answer is no. Yet just as in the case with all other PoS models, inevitable is moderate centralization, or in other words, the trade-off between decentralization and centralization. That is because, at least mathematically, the annual income from CET staked by retail traders on different validators relies on k, which is the commission ratio of the node, with a and q% of retail traders holding the same amount of CET remaining the same. That is to say, in terms of economic efficiency alone, the income of the retail trader’ votes for different nodes does not depend on the scale, but on the proportion of transaction fee and more implicit reasons such as the security and reliability (or reputation) of a node.
There are many other public chains adopting the “Supernodes” election, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of CoinEx?
There are many public chains adopting such “Supernodes” election mechanism, among which EOS and IOST are best known. So what are the similarities and differences in the nodes election between CoinEx and its counterparts?
From the perspective of the nodes election, IOST needs 2.1 million votes (one vote for one token). According to the price of 0.0044 US dollars when this document is published, it costs at least USD 9,300, a really low threshold. Blocks.io shows that EOS now requires about 290 million votes (30 votes for one token) for the top 21 supernodes. According to EOS REX’s data, if a consortium without a user base wants to get a block-generating right by renting tokens, it will cost around USD 2.55 million a year, approximately RMB 18 million. By contrast, the threshold for a CoinEx Chain’s node is only 5 million CET, a moderate cost of USD 100,000 approximately estimated at USD 0.02.
In terms of hardware, according to the hardware configuration mentioned above, it costs USD 1,000 per year. The estimated operating cost of AWS for t3.xlarge is USD 1,458 per year, and one master with a backup costs only USD 2,916 a year. (The specific data will change slightly in practice.) Take the recommended server for running a node when EOS officially announced its node election. It uses Amazon AWS EC2 host x1.32x Large, with 128-core processor, 2TB memory, 2x1920GB SSD storage space and 25Gb network bandwidth. The operating cost of such a server, with one master and one backup, is: 13.338*24*2 = USD 640 a day. (The bandwidth cost allocated to the day is negligible.) It is thus obvious that CoinEx costs less, avoiding the waste arising from servers such as EOS and thus eliminating the intangible cost.
From the number of nodes, CoinEx Chain has 42 validators, EOS has 21 block-generating nodes per round, and IOST has 63. CoinEx Chain stays in the middle of the decentralization-and-efficiency trade-offs. In addition, the estimated hardware cost of the CET node election is USD 1,000 a year, which is relatively low.
Overall, CoinEx Chain’s nodes election is designed in a reasonable way, which is destined to be a milestone for CoinEx. Once “trade-driven mining” at CoinEx and it has even gone through “repurchase and destruction”. Now it targets the DEX public chain, which is deemed as a paradigm shift that lifts CET out of the pattern of being platform-based tokens. Let’s look forward to its future development.
Follow CoinEx Chain on Social Channels:
Twitter: https://twitter.com/CoinExChain
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/CoinExChainOfficial/
Telegram: https://t.me/CoinExChainOrg
submitted by CoinExcom to Coinex [link] [comments]

I am a CTO of a "blockchain technology" startup, AMA

I've seen a lot of confusion regarding 'private blockchains' (aka permissioned ledgers, distributed ledger technology, ...) lately, and I think I'm in a good position to clarify what this technology is about, and what does it mean for Bitcoin.
First I'd like to introduce myself via facts of biography and projects I've been involved in:
Through the years I mostly worked with the Bitcoin blockchain, but I also researched private blockchains and talked with potential customers who might want to use a private blockchain or something like that.
So I'd like to address some common questions and misconceptions I've seen on /bitcoin.
Rhetoric question: Isn't a private blockchain just a database? Can't banks just use SQL as usual?
Answer: It certainly can be classified as a database, of a special kind. The Bitcoin blockchain is actually also a database of a special kind. They can certainly use SQL, but SQL, by itself, doesn't provide means of sharing a database between multiple parties in a secure way.
Use of SQL and use of blockchains isn't mutually exclusive. SQL is being used by a number of Bitcoin projects, for example: blockchain.info, Coinbase's Toshi, Abe block explorer, and Chromanode. There is at least one Bitcoin full node implementation which uses SQL: bits of proof supernode.
Question: Can't banks just use a distributed database or a shared ledger?
Answer: Modern distributed databases are designed with an assumption that all computers in a cluster are trusted. If an attacker can hijack a single computer of a cluster, he can compromise the whole clustedatabase.
Thus this software products aren't suitable for a case when a database needs to be shared between multiple parties which do not unconditionally trust each other. E.g. suppose banks A, B, C decided to share some database between themselves. If C's IT team fucks up, whole database might get corrupt.
Byzantine fault tolerance is an old concept, but it's rarely used in enterprise software. So there are no secure shared database products banks could use.
Bitcoin sparked new interest in secure distributed technology by demonstrating that it's actually possible & feasible. Now banks want it. Products which are inspired by Bitcoin and its block chain approach, and so they are often called "blockchains".
Misconception: A blockchain without proof-of-work makes no sense.
Answer: It was demonstrated that proof-of-stake can be quite good, both in theory and in practice. PoW and PoS have different security characteristics, which one is better is a matter of an opinion.
Other BFT consensus algorithms can be combined with a blockchain approach, e.g. Ripple/Stellar consensus, or PBFT-style three phase commit. They have well-understood security properties which differ from PoW and PoS.
In my opinion, if something has a chain of blocks, it can be called a blockchain. But if you want to understand a blockchain in a very narrow sense I don't mind, there are other terms like 'distributed ledger' which can be used instead.
Misconception: Banks use permissioned ledgers to implement "bankcoins", which are going to fail.
Answer: As someone who talked with many people from many banks, I can tell you they have very little interest for 'bankcoins', i.e. things which resemble Bitcoin. They might experiment with things like that just for shits and giggles, but there are no plans to launch it for real.
Banks plan to use permissioned ledger either to improve processes which are currently inefficient or non-secure; or to enable new business models.
Misconception: Banks should just use Bitcoin instead of this permissioned ledger mumbo-jumbo.
Answer: Bitcoin isn't suitable for things which permissioned ledgers aim to solve. It's, like, not related.
It would certainly be nice if banks provided Bitcoin services, but for them it's too much PITA with little to no benefits, as Bitcoin market is too small. Privatbank in Ukraine provides a Bitcoin payment service to merchant, kinda like Coinbase. So it's possible, just not common now.
So I think that Bitcoin can peacefully co-exist with private/permissioned blockchain/ledger technology: they aim to solve different problems, in different ways. There is some risk of a "bankcoin" competing with Bitcoin in future, but it's very small.
On contrary, I think adoption of crypto-based tech by banks is actually good for Bitcoin, as e.g. irreversible crypto money can be used for secure fiat <-> Bitcoin exchanges, which is good for Bitcoin, as it might reduce a hassle of buying Bitcoin, and thus increase userbase. Devices used to keep crypto bank money might also be used as secure Bitcoin wallets, etc.
I'll be happy to answer questions related to projects I've been involved in or blockchains in general.
submitted by killerstorm to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Can we talk about sharding and decentralized scaling for Raiblocks?

Introduction
This essay contains a healthy dose of math sprinkled with opinion, and I would be the first to admit that my math and personal opinions are sometimes wrong. The beauty of these forums is that it allows us to discuss topics in depth, and with enough group scrutiny we should arrive at the truth. I'm actually a cryptocurrency noob; I've only been looking at it in earnest for a few months, but I've seen enough to conclude that we are in the middle of a revolution, and if I don't intellectually participate somehow, I think I'll regret it for the rest of my life.
Here I analyze sharding in a PoS (proof-of-stake) system, and I will show that not only is sharding good, but I will quantify just how beneficial it is to Tps (transactions per second of the whole network) and mps (messages per second processed by each individual node). I use Raiblocks as my point of departure, regarding it as both my inspiration and my object of critique. But much of the discussion should be relevant to any PoS sharded system.
As you may know, Raiblocks does not employ ledger sharding, but seeing as every wallet is already in its own separate blockchain, it's basically already half-way there! From an engineering perspective, sharding is low-hanging fruit for a block-lattice structure like Raiblock's, especially when you compare it to how complicated it is for single-blockchain currencies.
For the record, I think that Raiblocks will scale just fine according to the current strategy laid out by Colin LeMahieu (u/meor) . By using only full nodes and hosting them in enterprise grade servers (basically datacenters), chances are good that the network will be able to keep up with future Tps (transaction per second) growth. Skeptics have been questioning if people are going to be willing to run nodes pro bono, just to support the network. But I don't doubt that many vendors will jump at the chance. If I'm Amazon, and I've been paying 3% of everything to Visa all these years, when there's an option to basically run my own Visa, I take it.
Payment networks like Paypal have been offering free person-to-person payments for years, eating the costs of processing those transactions in exchange for the opportunity to take their cut when those same people pay online vendors like Amazon. This makes business sense because only a minority of transactions are person-to-person anyway. Most payments result from people buying stuff. So, in a sense, vendors like Amazon have already been subsidizing our free transactions for years. By running Raiblocks nodes, they would still be subsidizing our transactions, but it would be a better deal than what they were getting before.
But have we forgotten something here? Is this really the dream of the instant, universal, decentralized, uncensorable payment network that was promised and only kinda delivered by Bitcoin? Decentralization comes in a spectrum, and while this is certainly better than a private blockchain like Ripple, the future of Raiblocks that we're looking at is a smallish number of supernodes run by a consortium of corporations, governments, and maybe a sprinkling of die-hard fans.
You may ask, but what about the nodes run by you and me on our dinky home computers and cable modem connections? Well, people need to remember that Raiblocks nodes need to talk to each other every time there's a transaction, in order to exchange their votes. The more nodes there are, the more messages have to be received and sent per node per transaction. Having more nodes may improve the decentralization, redudancy, and robustness of the network, but speed it definitely does not. Sure, the SSD of a computer running a mock node will handle 7000 tps, but the real bottleneck is network IO, not disk IO, and how many Comcast internet plans are going to keep up with 7000 x N messages per second, where N is the total number of nodes? If you take the message size to be 260 bytes (credit to u/juanjux's packet-sniffing skills), and the number of nodes to be 1000, that's 1.8 GB/s. Also, if you consider that at least two messages will need to be exchanged with every node (one for the sending wallet, one for the receiving), the network requirements per node becomes 3.6 GB/s. This requirement applies to both the download and upload bandwidth, since in addition to receiving votes from other nodes, you have to announce your own vote to all of them as well. Maybe with multicasting upload requirements can be relaxed, but the overall story is the same: you almost want to convince small players not to run their own nodes, so N doesn't grow too large. Hence, the lack of dividends.
So, if we're resigned to running Raiblocks from corporate supernodes in the future, we might want to ask ourselves, why is decentralization so important anyway? For 99.9% of the cases, I actually think it won't matter. People just want their transactions to complete in a low-cost and timely fashion. And that's why I think Ripple and Raiblocks on their current trajectories have bright futures. They are the petty cash of the future. But for bulk wealth storage, you want decentralization because it makes it hard for any one entity to gain control over your money. No government will be able to step in and freeze your funds if you're Wikileaks or a political dissident when your cryptocurrency network is hosted on millions of computers scattered across the internet. I know the millions number sounds outlandish given that Bitcoin itself has fewer than 12k nodes at present, but that's my vision for the future. And I hope that by the end of this essay, you'll agree it's plausible.
The main benefit of sharding is that it allows nodes to divide the task of hosting the ledger into smaller chunks, reducing the per-node bandwidth requirements to achieve a certain Tps. I'll show that this benefit comes without having to sacrifice ledger redundancy, so long as sufficient nodes can be recruited. One disadvantage that must be noted is the increased overhead of coordinating a large number of nodes subscribed to partial ledgers. At the very least, nodes will need to know how wealthy other nodes are for voting purposes. However, I don't see how an up-to-the-second update of nodal wealth is necessary, since wealth changes on the timescale of months, if not years. It should be sufficient to conduct a role call once every few weeks to update nodes on who the other nodes are and to impart information about wealth and ledger subscriptions. Nonetheless, in principle this overhead means it is still possible to have too many nodes even with sharding.
Raiblocks has a unique advantage over single-chain cryptocoins in that each wallet address is already its own blockchain. This makes it especially amenable to sharding, since each wallet can already be thought of as its own shard! You just need a clever algorithm to decide which nodes subscribe to which wallets. For the purposes of this analysis, I assume a random subscription, so that for example if both you and I subscribe to 10% of the ledger, our subscriptions are probabilistically independent, and we intersect on roughly one percent of the total wallet space. I will also assume that all nodes are identical to each other in bandwidth, though in practice I think each node's owner should decide how much bandwidth he is willing to commit, letting the node's software dynamically adjust its P to maintain the desired bandwidth, where P, or the participation level, is the fraction of the ledger that the node is subscribed to. That way, when the Tps of the network increases over time, each node will use the increasing bandwidth demand as a feedback signal to automatically lower its ledger subscription percentage. Then, all that would be missing for smooth and seamless network growth is a mechanism for ensuring node count growth.
 
Some math
Symbol Definition
mps messages per second received/sent per individual node
N total number of nodes
Tps transactions per second processed by the whole network
R ledger redundancy
P fractional participation level of an individual node
k role call frequency
From the definitions, it should be apparent that
(1) R = NP
There are two types of messages that nodes have to deal with, transaction messages and role-call messages. Transaction messages are those related to updating the ledger when money is sent from one wallet to another. For each transaction, each node presiding over the sending wallet/shard will need to
  1. Broadcast its vote to the other R members of the shard. In the normal case this is a thumbs up signal and no conflict resolution is required.
  2. Receive votes from the other R members of the shard
  3. Broadcast its thumbs up to the R members of the receiving wallet/shard
Each node presiding over the receiving wallet/shard will need to
  1. receive thumbs up signals from the R members of the sending wallet/shard
Therefore, on a macro level upload and download requirements are the same. (Two messages sent, two messages received.)
Role-call messages are those related to disseminating an active directory of which nodes are participating in which wallets and information about nodal wealth. Knowledge about each individual node is broadcasted to the network at a rate of k. I think 10-6 Hz is reasonable, for an update interval of 12 days. For each update, all R nodes presiding over the wallet of the node whose information is being shared will broadcast their view of the node's wealth to all N nodes. Therefore, from the perspective on an individual node:
  1. The rate that role-call messages are received is kRN.
  2. The rate that role-call messages are sent is k(# node wallets presided over)N = k(NP)N = kRN.
Again, upload and download rates are the same. Since upload and download rates are symmetric (which intuitively should be true since every message that is sent needs to be received), the parameter mps can be used equally to describe upload and download bandwidth.
(2) mps = 2R(PTps) + kRN,
where the two terms correspond to the transaction and role-call messages, respectively. Using (1), (2) can be rewritten as
(3) mps = 2R2Tps/N + kRN
Here, we see an interesting relationship between the different message categories and the node count. For a fixed ledger redundancy R and Tps, the number of transaction messages is inversely proportional to the number of nodes. This is intuitive. If all of a sudden there are twice as many nodes and ledger redundancy remains the same, then each node has halved its ledger subscription and only has to deal with half as many transactions. This is the "many hands make light work" phenomenon in action. On the other hand, the number of role-call messages increases in proportion to the number of nodes. The interplay between these two factors determines the sweet spot where mps is at a local minimum. Since the calculus is straightforward, I'll leave it as an exercise to the reader to show that
(4) N_sweetspot = (2RTps/k)1/2
Alternatively, another way of looking things is to consider mps to be fixed. This may be more appropriate if each node is pegged at its committed bandwidth. Then (3) describes the relationship between the ledger redundancy and N. You may ask how this can be reconciled with (1), which seems to imply that N and R are directly proportional, but in this scenario each node is dynamically adjusting its ledger subscription P in response to a changing N to maintain a constant bandwidth mps. In this view, the sweet spot for N is where R is maximized. Interestingly, regardless of which view you take, you arrive at the same expression for the sweet spot (4).
If N < N_sweetspot, then transaction messages dominate the total message count. The system is in the transaction-heavy regime and needs more nodes to help carry the transaction load. If N > N_sweetspot (the node-heavy regime), transaction messages are low, but the number of role-call messages is large and it becomes expensive to keep the whole network in sync. When N = N_sweetspot, the two message categories occur at the same rate, which is easily verified by plugging (4) back into (3). This is when the network is at its most decentralized: message count per node is low while redundancy is high.
Note that N_sweetspot increases as Tps1/2. This implies that, as transaction rate increases, the network will not optimally scale without somehow attracting new people to run nodes. But the incentives can't be too good either, or N may increase beyond N_sweetspot. Ideally, a feedback mechanism using market forces will encourage the network to gravitate towards the sweet spot (more on this later).
One special case is where P=1 and N=R. This is when the network is at its most centralized operating point, with every single node acting as a full node. This minimizes node count for a given redundancy level R and is how Raiblocks is currently designed. I will show that for most real-world numbers, the role-call term is so small as to be negligible, but the mps is many orders of magnitude higher than in the decentralized case because of the large transaction term.
Assuming that we are able to keep the network operating at its sweet spot, by plugging (4) into (3), we arrive at
(5) mps_sweetspot = R3/2(8kTps)1/2
If instead we plug N=R into (3), we arrive at
(6) mps_centralized = 2RTps + kR2
So, we see that in the decentralized case the mps of individual nodes increases as the square root of Tps, a much more sustainable form of scaling than the linear relationship in the centralized case.
And now, the moment we've all been waiting for: plugging various network load scenarios into these formulas and comparing the most decentralized case to the most centralized. Real world operation will be somewhere in between these two extremes.
Fixed parameters
packet size (bytes) 260
k (Hz) 1.00E-06
R 1000
transaction fee ($) $0.01
Tps
0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000
Total monthly dividends $2,592 $25,920 $259,200 $2,592,000 $25,920,000 $259,200,000 $2,592,000,000
Decentralized node requirements
mps (Hz) 28 89 283 894 2,828 8,944 28,284
node traffic (bytes/s) 7.35E+03 2.33E+04 7.35E+04 2.33E+05 7.35E+05 2.33E+06 7.35E+06
N 1.41E+04 4.47E+04 1.41E+05 4.47E+05 1.41E+06 4.47E+06 1.41E+07
P 7.07E-02 2.24E-02 7.07E-03 2.24E-03 7.07E-04 2.24E-04 7.07E-05
Total Network Traffic (bytes/s) 1.04E+08 1.04E+09 1.04E+10 1.04E+11 1.04E+12 1.04E+13 1.04E+14
Yearly Network Traffic (bytes) 3.28E+15 3.28E+16 3.28E+17 3.28E+18 3.28E+19 3.28E+20 3.28E+21
Decentralized node income
monthly per node ($) $0.18 $0.58 $1.83 $5.80 $18.33 $57.96 $183.28
income/GB ($/GB) $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096
Centralized node requirements
mps (Hz) 2.01E+02 2.00E+03 2.00E+04 2.00E+05 2.00E+06 2.00E+07 2.00E+08
node traffic (bytes/s) 5.23E+04 5.20E+05 5.20E+06 5.20E+07 5.20E+08 5.20E+09 5.20E+10
N 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000
P 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Total Network Traffic (bytes/s) 5.23E+07 5.20E+08 5.20E+09 5.20E+10 5.20E+11 5.20E+12 5.20E+13
Yearly Network Traffic (bytes) 1.65E+15 1.64E+16 1.64E+17 1.64E+18 1.64E+19 1.64E+20 1.64E+21
Centralized node income
monthly per node ($) $2.59 $25.92 $259.20 $2,592 $25,920 $259,200 $2,592,000
income/GB ($/GB) 0.0191 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192
Yes, I did sneak a transaction fee in there, which is anathema to the Raiblocks way. But I wanted to incentivize people to run nodes. Observe that income per gigabyte remains the same, independent of network Tps, because both total income and total bandwidth scale proportionally to Tps. The decentralized case has half the income/GB because the role-call overhead doubles network activity. In either case, the income per GB depends on transaction fee and is independent of network load.
An interesting number to check online is the price/GB that various ISP's charge. With Google Fiber, it is possible to purchase bandwidth as low as $0.00076 per GB, meaning that it may be possible for nodes to be profitable even if fees were lowered by another order of magnitude. As time progresses, bandwidth costs will only go down, so fees may be able to be lowered even further past that. But because of electricity and other miscellaneous costs, I think a one cent transaction fee is probably pretty close to what people need to incentivize them to run nodes.
With sharding, even many home broadband connections today can feasibly support 100,000 transactions per second, with each node subscribed to about one ten thousandth of the total ledger and handling about 7 MB/s. Getting 14 million people to run nodes may seem like a tall order, but the financial incentives are there. Just look at all the people who have rushed to do GPU mining. Here, bandwidth replaces hashing power as the tool used for mining.
According to a study done by Cisco, yearly internet traffic is projected to reach 3.3 ZB by 2021. Looking at the table, that means if we ever reach 100,000 Tps, Sharded Raiblocks traffic would be equal to the rest of the world combined. Yikes! But if you think about it, nobody along the way is taking on an unbearable load. Users pay low fees for transactions. Nodes get dividends. ISPs get additional customers. The only ones who lose out are Visa, Paypal, and banks.
With such a large network presence, the cultural impact of this coin would be huge. That, in addition to the sheer number of participants running nodes as side businesses would cement this as the coin of the people.
From a macro level, I see no red flags that would indicate this is economically or technically infeasible. Of course, the devil's in the details so I'm posting this to see if people think I'm on the right track. To me, it seems that the possibilities are tantalizing and someone needs to build a test net to see if this idea flies (u/meor, if any of this sounds appealing, are you guys hiring? ;) ).
Musings
I've only scratched the surface and there are many other topics that are worthy of deeper discussion:
submitted by Cookiemole to RaiBlocks [link] [comments]

D-DPoS is the update of DPoS

D-DPoS is the update of DPoS
We have waited forD-DPoS Consensus Mechanism From DPoS to D-DPoS
https://preview.redd.it/j4m38hepi6j11.jpg?width=2221&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f6166377e7afb50746ce2bbf3f3acab33182616d
DPoS, a well-known and creative consensus mechanism, derived from Graphene technology, by making further improvement on PoS, is being accepted by more and more blockchain systems such as EOS. DPoS solves the complex mining process which is the core problem in Bitcoin network since everyone in the network is rewarded or entitled not based on how much work they actually do, but how many “shares” or amount of coins/tokens they actually hold. To use EOS as an example to illustrate how DPoS works, EOS lets the whole network to vote and then rank how many votes a node gets. Any node holding certain amount of EOS is entitled to vote. The first 101 ranking nodes are elected out primarily. Then, out of the 101 candidates, 21 will be elected to become supernodes. The 21 supernodes will be responsible for generating new blocks and process transactions for the network.
DPoS is a fantastic design that improves greatly the issues faced by BTC and ETH system since there’re only 21 nodes generating blocks instead of all nodes in the network. Due to DPoS, TPS in EOS is much faster than ETH and BTC, practically can reach 10 to 100,000 and theoretically even millions of TPS. However, DPoS has its clear problems. First of all, the so-called voting system is not as simple as described here, with just a simple click on a website to anyone you want to vote for. The actual voting process is much more complex and time consuming, requiring voters to have enough professional knowledge. Thus, among the people who have the right to vote, not too many of them actually participate. A common way this is handled is by allowing the exchanges holding peoples coins to vote for them. As a result, the voting outcome might not reflect the voter´s opinions. The other serious problem is bribery. In EOS, the supernodes are rewarded for their work, about 5 % of the total EOS supply. Unfortunately this large amount drive many Supernode representatives to use incentives to have other people vote for them through bribery or other illegal and unethical ways, so called ballot rigging.
D-DPoS Consensus Mechanism; Secure, Decentralized & High TPS D-DPoS is created by DBXChain to solve the mentioned problems with ballot rigging. DBXChain is mainly a data-based blockchain infrastructure and primarily serves data transaction on it. Just like when you buy something on Amazon, you can rate sellers to reflect how well their service is. By participating in the network through data transactions, the nodes judge whether the data is OK by the quality of the data, network status of the supernodes (Which is called Trinity nodes in DBXChain) and how well the Trinity node fulfill its function. By confirming everything is OK with the data, a node just automatically vote for the Trinity node, otherwise it doesn’t vote. The ranking rationale of nodes is also different from DPoS, such as how many votes one node gets, and the use of a weighted score. Because to survive on the DBXChain, or to participate in it, you have to generate data transaction, you don’t need to spend extra time or energy to vote since you’ve already done so through the transaction. By this way, it really lowers the voting cost and increases the voting rate.
On the other hand, as to bribery, because it is reactive voting procedure in DBXChain where a node get votes by good behavior, if someone wants to cheat, it must misrepresent the historic contributions of the network, which would lead to very costly fines due to misconduct. Once a node has been selected as Trinity node, it will soon be kicked out when it can’t fulfill its duty. If several Trinity nodes cheats, an improved PBFS algorithm would correct the producing block, and triggering an investigation algorithm. If a node votes for another bad quality node to be a Trinity, once disclosed, it will lose its trust among others and lose the possibility to be elected as Trinity in the future. In that way, if someone wants to cheat in DBXChain, it will become very costly and end up only hurting itself, something that is not possible in DPoS.
In addition, DPoS updates the supernodes list every single day, with a fixed schedule. However, in D-DPoS, the list is updating continuously in real-time. Since it’s hard to predict a node’s network status and data validity, the voting procedure is hard to control by any hostile attackers, making it safer than DPoS.
submitted by DBXChain to CryptoCurrencyTrading [link] [comments]

QuarkChain FAQ

Part 1: Marketing Questions

  1. Q: There are so many blockchains these days and they are quite competitive. What plans does QuarkChain have in place to encourage the community to support this project continuously? A: We will continue to post our development process, ecosystem building and many more on our social media including Twitter, Telegram, Medium, Steemit, and Reddit. Except for previous 100+ volunteers helping us test our testnet, since our testnet 1.0 has been released, there are more than 3000 community members have joined the testing. We also have developer communities which are under development.
  2. Q: Can you introduce your partners? A: We have built strategic partnerships with 30+ global projects such as Tripio, Bodhi, and Laya.one. We also have plans to build deeper relationships with 10 projects including Covalent Chain, DxChain, Drep, Playtable, ValPromise, Ankr, MXC, LendChain, EON, and Celer. Besides, we also partner with Certik in Smart Contract audit. More partnership will be built.
  3. Q: What’s next in the roadmap? A: We will introduce our next plans in three major parts.
1)Development The first thing we need to do is to make sure our testnet is stable and keep optimizing our systems. We have found that there are many places, not only in scalability part but also in virtual machine and storage part, that we can improve in the following several months. We are also preparing articles of our technical details for open source several months later. We want to encourage community members to participate in our project and make our project not only our own project but also the community’s project. Another big thing we are focusing on currently is our mainnet which will be launched in several months. The main feature of the mainnet is that we can increase capacity on-demand as the network grows, and it will work as a scalable smart contract that can do whatever ETH can do but with greater scalability.
2)Marketing Currently, we only separate our market into Chinese, English, Korean, Japanese, Russian parts. We will have more strategies to open for different markets including, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, India and Europe. We will do more local stuff and enlarge our local community. Moreover, with the launch of testnet, we will build developer communities. At the beginning of August, we are going to hold the biggest hackathon in the Bay Area with Google ABC. There are only three projects to be selected and we are very honored to be one of them. At that time, there will be many programmers from big companies such as Google, Facebook and Linkedin building dApps on top of us on this two-day hackathon. We also have our 50 million eco-fund to establish an open and collaborative ecosystem of QuarkChain and 30 partners after just one month on Binance.
3)Korean Marketing We recently had the signing ceremony with a very strong insurance company in Korea who has revenue of 20 million per year and decides to go blockchain and global. We also have several contracts ready including a leading AI company and leading financial institution in Korea. You will hear more news about Korean marketing very soon.
  1. Q: Why the current circulating supply seems too low compared to the declared total 10 billion circulating supply? Please note that 40% QKC will be used for MINING and is already locked by Smart Contract. Private sale is locked to protect public sale investors. The first release of private sale is 10% and it will be released in about ONE MONTH after the QKC is listed on exchange. You could see the circulating supply schedule detail here: https://support.binance.com/hc/en-us/articles/360004471832-Binance-To-Open-Trading-For-QuarkChain-QKC-and-Risk-Warning Other token allocation includes 15% for the team, 15% for the foundation, and 5% for advisors. These are all locked up to 2 years with vesting plan using smart contract and will be unlocked gradually.

Part 2: Technical Questions

  1. Q: What kind of language is QuarkChain using for development? A: Currently, QuarkChain is developed in Python. The main reason for choosing Python is its fast deployment so that QuarkChain team could focus more on technology. Actually, we already obtain pretty decent performance results these days, and we could easily achieve much higher performance by employing other high-performance languages such as C++ and Go. Note that early Ethereum development also used Python, but later Go implementation becomes popular after Ethereum got more attention.
  2. Q: What does Collaborative Mining of QKC means? A: QuarkChain will utilize GPU-friendly mining algorithms, which is still under development. QuarkChain Network has several minor blockchains (shards) and one root blockchain. Each minor blockchain offers different incentives and difficulties. Miners could choose any minor blockchain at an optimal price of their hash power. This creates an open market economic model, where a blockchain is a seller with goods being the block reward, while a miner is a buyer with hash power being their currency. It is desirable that a marketing model is designed with features ensuring that though each party in the market pursues their interests, the collective behaviors of each party can benefit all. The goal of collaborative mining is to design incentive mechanisms and difficulty algorithms so that (1) Hash powers are incentivized to distribute evenly among shards. This ensures that all shards are mined evenly, and thus the system throughput (i.e., TPS) increases as the number of shards increases; (2) The root chain has a significantly large portion (over 50%) of hash power over the whole hash power of the network. This prevents double-spend attacks, and a malicious miner needs at least 50% * 50% = 25% power to perform an attack.
  3. Q: What is QuarkChain’s relationship with DAG or other Tangle technology? A: “The tangle is what is known as a directed acyclic graph (DAG): a data structure that moves in one direction without looping back onto itself. ” (from https://www.nasdaq.com/article/what-is-the-tangle-and-is-it-blockchains-next-evolutionary-step-cm911074) The system of QuarkChain Network itself can be treated as a well-structured DAG. This allows QuarkChain to inherit a lot of benefits from both blockchain and general DAG technique. For example, the consensus of QuarkChain and its threat model can be easily derived/analyzed following those of Bitcoin/Ethereum blockchain, while QuarkChain achieves high throughput similar to general DAG. Given two blockchains/DAGs of QuarkChain, we could easily tell which one should be appended thanks to QuarkChain’s root chain.
  4. Q: How does cross-shard communication work in QuarkChain? A: The QuarkChain Network fully supports cross-shard transactions as the first-class citizen, in a sense that: (1) Any user could issue any cross-shard transaction at any time; (2) Cross-shard transactions can be confirmed in minutes; (3) The throughput of cross-shard transactions could be scaled linearly as the number of shards increases. In short, the cross-shard transaction is almost the same as in-shard transaction except that the root chain needs to confirm the block header of the transaction before spending the output of the cross-shard transaction.
  5. Q: It seems there would be different nodes with different roles, all interconnected. How do you plan to prevent them from exploiting the role-playing model? As I understand it, you will manage and audit the network of voluntary nodes, then how do you call it “public blockchain”? Also, sharding doesn’t guarantee the persistence of data, nor completeness of the collection of shards. How do you guarantee longtail operation will be smooth and stable? What if there aren’t enough volunteers to participate? A: (1) For the first two questions, nodes (machines) trust each other to form a cluster acting as a full node. Anyone can run their cluster to participate in the network. Thus, we don’t manage clusters directly; (2) For the third question, there will be data completeness for an individual shard. Sharding and persistence are not mutually exclusive and we don’t understand why you think sharding doesn’t guarantee the persistence of data. All major data stored in Amazon, Facebook and Google use sharding to achieve scalability, and we are pretty sure persistence is guaranteed; (3) For the last question, mining is about incentives. We can try to solve the cold start problem by encouraging mining with relative greater incentives at the beginning.
  6. Q: Is that possible to say a dApp to seamlessly run on multiple shards if one shard cannot provide the necessary throughput? If that possible, as cross-shard transactions are slower, wouldn’t that create somewhat of a bottleneck as well? A: There is a topic of a scalable smart contract. We are working toward this feature, and a lot of interesting things are ongoing. Also, it depends on how the dApp is configured as well. Take CPU as an example, once Intel/AMD reached the clock speed limit, they realized multi-core should be the next design paradigm, which means performance software should also change the paradigm to fully leverage multi-core CPU architecture.
  7. Q: Number of Nodes — Can you explain to me if the more nodes, the better? Is that possible for QuarkChain to reach high TPS with fewer nodes (to prevent slower network)? A: It depends on how these nodes are organized. If all nodes would like to reach the same chain consensus, then the more nodes in the network, the slower the network is. Generally speaking, the more nodes in the network, the more decentralized the network is. Thus, we could achieve the high TPS with fewer nodes, but this will sacrifice decentralization, which is what we want to encourage. This shows the trade-off.
  8. Q: Number of shards — How does the number of shards are selected, how many nodes will be there in the number of shards? As per the white paper, each shard will have its difficulty and reward mechanism. How is it defined? So it means miners can switch over between the different shards depending on mining difficulty and can try to get maximum rewards? How is this mitigated? Is there any sort of EDA or there is a limitation for miners switching between shards? How is this more decentralized than usual PoW solution? A: The number of shards is determined by the network situation and could be done by our governance model. The miner could mine any shards, depending on block reward, difficulty, and network propagation of the major miners of the shard. More decentralized is mainly because a miner could mine a shard directly instead of joining a mining pool. The motivation for joining a mining pool is to collect reward timely as an exchange of transaction fee of pooling. By mining the shard directly (as the difficulty is lower), the miner could save transaction fee and encourage more decentralization.
  9. Q: Clustering — It is a good idea where the “honest nodes” are clustered to run as a supernode and will involve the root chain to confirm the transactions between them. There will be the incentive for the nodes to form clustering. How does this “Honest nodes” are selected for clustering or is it something which the nodes can do themselves? If they can do themselves? What prevents the malicious miners to collude and form a cluster of their own? How is this mitigated? A: A cluster is a replacement of a super-full node, but still serving as a peer in the network. Therefore, as long as there are sufficient peers (clusters) in the network, any blocks from the malicious cluster (peer) will be rejected. At the moment, a smart contract can be only administered in one shard. A cross-shard transaction is to transfer QKC from one shard to another shard, and thus a user with a single private key will be able to execute a smart contract transaction in any shard. A cluster — as a replacement of a super-full node — maintains the full ledger of the network and thus knows all chains. In addition, double spending attack is mitigated by root chain’s hash power via root-chain first consensus algorithm. Please refer our white paper for more details.
  10. Q: Does QuarkChain have any plans to move away from the EVM for dApps with many other VM’s coming out, such as NEO’s VM. Or do you intend to create your own VM? A: We may develop our own VM if needed, but this highly depends on the feedback of our dApps partners. Even though there are so many VMs, a lot of them lack systematic supports (such as editor, compiler, debugger). To our best knowledge, EVM is the most-adopted VM right now, and other candidates could be NEO VM, EOS VM, and ETH WASM. Currently, we don’t have the plan to swap VM but will add more supports for new VMs, i.e., adding new shards to support new VMs or even new consensus algorithms. This shows another advantage of our sharding technique on enabling this flexibility. In this situation, QKC will be the GAS, and other VMs may have different token models. We need to figure out the proper way to incorporate them. However, this should happen after the launch of mainnet.
You can find more about our technical details at https://steemit.com/technology/@quarkchain/response-to-the-article-quarkchain-red-flags-we-know-something-you-don-t-know We will also disclose more technical details on our series of post. You can check the first three of them on our official Medium at https://medium.com/quarkchain-official
Thank you for reading QuarkChain FAQ! The QuarkChain community appreciates your support!
Website https://www.quarkchain.io Telegram https://t.me/quarkchainio Twitter https://twitter.com/Quark_Chain Steemit https://steemit.com/@quarkchain Medium https://medium.com/quarkchain-official Reddit https://www.reddit.com/quarkchainio/ Weibo https://weibo.com/QuarkChain
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aantonop - YouTube But how does bitcoin actually work? - YouTube SmartTalk Radio E01  Scaling  Voting  SuperNodes  SmartRewards NicNacCoin starting a node with forknote daemon and simple wallet Part 1 What Is Blockchain  What Is Bitcoin  Blockchain ...

Examples of these include Civic (CVC), BitDegree (BDG), and WePower (WPR). So, let’s get into it! Bitcoin. In 2008, the idea of Bitcoin was revealed. Someone named Satoshi Nakamoto published the White Paper online. However, it was later revealed that Satoshi Nakamoto was not this person’s real name. Even today, no one knows the real name of the creator of Bitcoin! At the time, nobody knew ... Bitcoin’s total node count fell below 47,000 on Monday, a level not seen since 2017, based on estimates determined by well-regarded Bitcoin developer Luke Dashjr. His numbers show a steady ... What is Bitcoin and how does it work? Definition: Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, a form of electronic money. It is a decentralized digital currency without is independent of banks and can be sent from user to user on the peer-to-peer bitcoin blockchain network without the need for intermediaries. Updated April 2019 If you want to know what is Bitcoin, how you can get it, and how it can help you ... End to end Bitcoin Blockchain explanation with examples Published on May 27, 2017 May 27, 2017 • 384 Likes • 28 Comments Bitcoin core developer Jeff Garzik believes that community attention to the lack of nodes supporting the network is what the industry needs in order to boost numbers: “I agree we need more full ...

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aantonop - YouTube

aantonop's YouTube channel is THE place to find free, unbiased educational videos on all things Bitcoin and open blockchain. Subscribe & join the channel to ... http://letstalkbitcoin.com/blog/post/lets-talk-bitcoin-132-multisig-and-supernodes This "What Is Blockchain" video by Edureka will help you grasp the basic concepts of Blockchain Technology and how Bitcoin's Blockchain solves the issues in ... Graft is a global, open-sourced, blockchain-based, decentralized payment gateway and processing platform that anyone can use. In this video, I try to give you a complete breakdown of the overall ... This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue

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